A laktáció biológiája

Az anyatejnek is van mikrobiomja, ami védi az anyát és a csecsemőt!

A humán mikrobiom program az Amerikai Egészségügyi Intézet jelentős vállalkozása volt egy viszonylag egyszerű célkitűzéssel: meg akarták érteni, milyen baktérium telepek élnek az emberi test belsejében és felszínén – és milyen hatással lehetnek ezek a telepek az egészségünkre.

A több száz személy által adományozott minták közt a széklettől az orrváladékig minden előfordult. Azonban egy kulcsfontosságú mintát figyelmen kívül hagytak: az anyatejet. Úgy bizony – az anyatej mikrobiomját nem vizsgálták. Ebben nyilván szerepe volt a régóta fennálló tévhitnek, hogy az anyatej steril. Ugyan, miért vizsgálnánk valamit, ami steril?

De hamarosan kiderült, hogy az anyatej távol áll a sterilitástól.

Anatomy of the human mammary gland: Current status of knowledge.

Hassiotou F, Geddes D.
Clin Anat. 2013 Jan;26(1):29-48.


Mammary glands are unique to mammals, with the specific function of synthesizing, secreting, and delivering milk to the newborn. Given this function, it is only during a pregnancy/lactation cycle that the gland reaches a mature developmental state via hormonal influences at the cellular level that effect drastic modifications in the micro- and macro-anatomy of the gland, resulting in remodeling of the gland into a milk-secretory organ. Pubertal and post-pubertal development of the breast in females aids in preparing it to assume a functional state during pregnancy and lactation. Remarkably, this organ has the capacity to regress to a resting state upon cessation of lactation, and then undergo the same cycle of expansion and regression again in subsequent pregnancies during reproductive life. This plasticity suggests tight hormonal regulation, which is paramount for the normal function of the gland.

Is increased fat content of hindmilk due to the size or the number of milk fat globules?

Mizuno K, Nishida Y, Taki M, Murase M, Mukai Y, Itabashi K, Debari K, Iiyama A.
Int Breastfeed J. 2009 Jul 16;4:7.


BACKGROUND: It is known that the fat content of breast milk is higher in hindmilk than in foremilk. However, it has not been determined if this increased fat content results from an increase in the number of milk fat globules (MFGs), an increase in the size of MFGs, or both. This study aims to determine which factor plays the most important role.

An overlooked aspect of the human breast: Areolar glands in relation with breastfeeding pattern, neonatal weight gain, and the dynamics of lactation

Doucet S, Soussignan R, Sagot P, Schaal B.
Early Hum Dev. 2011 Aug 16. [Epub ahead of print]


The early nursing-sucking relationship is not to be taken for granted in humans. A number of factors can either facilitate or mitigate its optimal establishment on the mother's or newborn's sides. Among these factors, a morphological feature of human mothers' breasts - the areolar glands (AG) - has been identified as potentially important.

The Magic Number and Long-Term Milk Production

Nancy Mohrbacher
Clinical Lactation 2011 2(1):15-18


Worry about milk production is the most common reason women wean earlier than planned. In many cases this worry is due to confusion about how milk production works. This article describes a teaching concept, termed the Magic Number. Clinicians can use this concept to provide mothers who are not exclusively breastfeeding on cue a clear, evidence-based understanding of how to keep their milk production stable over the long term.

Unravelling the Mystery of Stem/Progenitor Cells in Human Breast Milk

Fan Y, Chong YS, Choolani MA, Cregan MD, Chan JK.
PLoS One. 2010 Dec 28;5(12):e14421.


BACKGROUND: Mammary stem cells have been extensively studied as a system to delineate the pathogenesis and treatment of breast cancer. However, research on mammary stem cells requires tissue biopsies which limit the quantity of samples available. We have previously identified putative mammary stem cells in human breast milk, and here, we further characterised the cellular component of human breast milk.

Insulin, a key regulator of hormone responsive milk protein synthesis during lactogenesis in murine mammary explants

Menzies KK, Lee HJ, Lefèvre C, Ormandy CJ, Macmillan KL, Nicholas KR.
Funct Integr Genomics. 2010 Mar;10(1):87-95.


Murine milk protein gene expression requires insulin, hydrocortisone, and prolactin; however, the role of insulin is not well understood. This study, therefore, examined the requirement of insulin for milk protein synthesis.

Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein.

Bettler J, Zimmer JP, Neuringer M, DeRusso PA.
Eur J Nutr. 2010 Feb;49(1):45-51.


Background Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants.

Aim of the study To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein.

Serotonin Transport and Metabolism in the Mammary Gland Modulates Secretory Activation and Involution

Aaron M. Marshall, Laurie A. Nommsen-Rivers, Laura L. Hernandez, Kathryn G. Dewey, Caroline J. Chantry, Karen A. Gregerson and Nelson D. Horseman
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Feb;95(2):837-46.


Context: Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is an important local regulator of lactation homeostasis; however, the roles for the serotonin reuptake transporter and monoamine oxidase have not been known.

Fatty Acid Profile Comparisons in Human Milk Sampled From the Same Mothers at the Sixth Week and the Sixth Month of Lactation.

Szabó E, Boehm G, Beermann C, Weyermann M, Brenner H, Rothenbacher D, Decsi T.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010 Jan 27. [Epub ahead of print]

OBJECTIVES: To compare fatty acid composition of human milk at 2 different stages of lactation and investigate the relation between trans isomeric and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in human milk at the sixth month of lactation.

Effects of Sucking and Skin-to-Skin Contact on Maternal ACTH and Cortisol Levels During the Second Day Postpartum—Influence of Epidural Analgesia and Oxytocin in the Perinatal Period

Handlin L, Jonas W, Petersson M, Ejdebäck M, Ransjö-Arvidson AB, Nissen E, Uvnäs-Moberg K.
Breastfeed Med. 2009 Dec;4(4):207-20.

Effect of Domperidone on the Composition of Preterm Human Breast Milk

Campbell-Yeo ML, Allen AC, Joseph KS, Ledwidge JM, Caddell K, Allen VM, Dooley KC.
PEDIATRICS Vol. 125 No. 1 January 2010, pp. e107-e114 (doi:10.1542/peds.2008-3441)


Objective Domperidone is increasingly prescribed to improve breast milk volume despite a lack of evidence regarding its effects on breast milk composition. We examined the effect of domperidone on the nutrient composition of breast milk.

Retention of the Immunological Proteins of Pasteurized Human Milk in Relation to Pasteurizer Design and Practice

Czank C, Prime DK, Hartmann B, Simmer K, Hartmann PE.
Pediatr Res. 2009 Oct;66(4):374-9.


Pasteurizing donor human milk inactivates bacteria that may be of concern to the preterm infant. However, current practice for Holder Pasteurization (62.5 degrees C for 30 min) is detrimental to the bioactivity of human milk.

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