Szoptatás és környezetszennyezés

Estimated Exposure to Arsenic in Breastfed and Formula-Fed Infants in a United States Cohort

Background: Previous studies indicate that breast milk arsenic concentrations are relatively low even in areas with high drinking water arsenic. However, it is uncertain whether breastfeeding leads to reduced infant exposure to arsenic in regions with lower arsenic concentrations.

Objective: We estimated the relative contributions of breast milk and formula to arsenic exposure during early infancy in a U.S. population.

Perchlorate exposure from infant formula and comparisons with the perchlorate reference dose

Joshua G Schier, Amy F Wolkin, Lisa Valentin-Blasini, Martin G Belson, Stephanie M Kieszak, Carol S Rubin and Benjamin C Blount

Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication 18 March 2009; doi: 10.1038/jes.2009.18

Perchlorate exposure may be higher in infants compared with older persons, due to diet (infant formula) and body weight versus intake considerations. Our primary objective was to quantitatively assess perchlorate concentrations in commercially available powdered infant formulas (PIFs). Secondary objectives were: (1) to estimate exposure in infants under different dosing scenarios and compare them with the perchlorate reference dose (RfD); (2) estimate the perchlorate concentration in water used for preparing PIFs that would result in a dose exceeding the RfD; and (3) estimate iodine intakes from PIFs.

Breast-feeding Protects against Arsenic Exposure in Bangladeshi Infants

Fängström B, Moore S, Nermell B, Kuenstl L, Goessler W, Grandér M, Kabir I, Palm B, Arifeen SE, Vahter M.
Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Jul;116(7):963-9.


BACKGROUND: Chronic arsenic exposure causes a wide range of health effects, but little is known about critical windows of exposure. Arsenic readily crosses the placenta, but the few available data on postnatal exposure to arsenic via breast milk are not conclusive.

Influence of Maternal Bone Lead Burden and Calcium Intake on Levels of Lead in Breast Milk over the Course of Lactation

Adrienne S. Ettinger, Martha María Téllez-Rojo, Chitra Amarasiriwardena, Karen E. Peterson, Joel Schwartz, Antonio Aro, Howard Hu and Mauricio Hernández-Avila

American Journal of Epidemiology 2006 163(1):48-56

The authors studied 367 women who were breastfeeding their infants in Mexico City, Mexico, between 1994 and 1995 to evaluate the effect of cumulative lead exposure, breastfeeding practices, and calcium intake on breast milk lead levels over the course of lactation.

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