Mesterséges táplálás

Marketing Breastfeeding—Reversing Corporate Influence on Infant Feeding Practices

Deborah L. Kaplan and Kristina M. Graff
J Urban Health. 2008 Jul; 85(4): 486–504.

Abstract

Breast milk is the gold standard for infant nutrition and the only necessary food for the first 6 months of an infant’s life. Infant formula is deficient and inferior to breast milk in meeting infants’ nutritional needs. The infant formula industry has contributed to low rates of breastfeeding through various methods of marketing and advertising infant formula. Today, in New York City, although the majority of mothers initiate breastfeeding (~85%), a minority of infants is breastfed exclusively at 8 weeks postpartum (~25%). The article reviews the practices of the formula industry and the impact of these practices.

Hydrolysed formula and risk of allergic or autoimmune disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

Boyle RJ et al.
BMJ 2016; 352 :i974

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether feeding infants with hydrolysed formula reduces their risk of allergic or autoimmune disease.

DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis, as part of a series of systematic reviews commissioned by the UK Food Standards Agency to inform guidelines on infant feeding. Two authors selected studies by consensus, independently extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies using the Cochrane risk of bias tool.

A csecsemőkori kólika probiotikumokkal történő kezelése nem hatékonyabb, mint a placebo

A British Medical Journal-ben nemrég megjelent tanulmány az eddig elvégzett legnagyobb esetszámú, randomizált, kettső vak, placebo-kontrollált vizsgálat. Az eredmények szerint a Lactobacillus reuteri probiotikummal történő kezelés nem csökkentette jobban a kólikás csecsemők sírását és a nyűgösségét, mint a placebo.

Formula milk versus donor breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants.

Quigley MA, Henderson G, Anthony MY, McGuire W.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD002971.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: When sufficient maternal breast milk is not available, the alternative sources of enteral nutrition for preterm or low birth weight infants are donor breast milk or artificial formula milk. Feeding preterm or low birth weight infants with formula milk might increase nutrient input and growth rates. However, since feeding with formula milk may be associated with a higher incidence of feeding intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, this may adversely affect growth and development.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of formula milk compared with donor human breast milk on growth and development in preterm or low birth weight infants.

Information concerning the use and marketing of follow-up formula

World Health Organization, 17 July 2013

The use of follow-up formula

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that infants be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life to achieve optimal growth, development and health. Mothers should continue to breastfeed their children beyond the age of six months, until they are two years of age or older, at the same time providing them with safe and appropriate complementary foods to meet their evolving nutritional requirements.

The Association of Prenatal Media Marketing Exposure Recall with Breastfeeding Intentions, Initiation, and Duration

Zhang Y, Carlton E, Fein SB.
J Hum Lact. 2013 May 17.

Abstract

Background: Infant formula marketing, either directly to consumers or through health care providers, may influence women’s breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration. However, little is known about the impact of different types of media marketing on infant feeding intentions and behavior.

Objective: This study investigated whether different types of recalled prenatal media marketing exposure to formula and breastfeeding information are related to breastfeeding intentions and behavior.

Milk sharing and formula feeding: Infant feeding risks in comparative perspective?

Gribble KD, Hausman BL.
Australasian Medical Journal, Vol 5, No 5 (2012)

Abstract

The advent of Internet forums that facilitate peer-to-peer human milk sharing has resulted in health authorities stating that sharing human milk is dangerous. There are risks associated with all forms of infant feeding, including breastfeeding and the use of manufactured infant formulas.

Infant milks in the UK

Bár ez a dokumentum az Egyesült Királyságban forgalmazott csecsemőtápszerekről szól, a benne lévő sok általános információ és javaslat minden további nélkül alkalmazható a Magyarországon forgalmazott tápszerekre is. A dokumentum igen nagy jelentőségű amiatt is, hogy ez az első ilyen mélységű és terjedelmű, kereskedelmi érdekektől független, objektív összefoglaló a csecsemőtápszerekről.

Helen Crawley and Susan Westland
The Caroline Walker Trust 2011

Executive summary and recommendations

This report provides information about infant milks available in the UK. The stimulus to produce this report was the lack of any clear, objective and comprehensive information for health professionals about the composition of infant milks and how they are monitored and regulated. The main aim of producing the report is to encourage the relevant health departments of the UK to take greater responsibility in advising health professionals about infant milks, to ensure parents and carers have consistent information when making choices about infant feeding. The world infant formula market is rapidly expanding with a 9% per annum increase globally, reflecting changing infant feeding patterns across the world, and in particular in Asia. It is important that manufacturers in this global market are held to account about the composition of their products which are the sole source of nutrition for many millions of infants around the world.

There is (still) too much aluminium in infant formulas

Shelle-Ann M Burrell and Christopher Exley
BMC Pediatrics 2010, 10:63

Abstract

Background
Infant formulas are sophisticated milk-based feeds for infants which are used as a substitute for breast milk. Historically they are known to be contaminated by aluminium and in the past this has raised health concerns for exposed infants. We have measured the aluminium content of a number of widely used infant formulas to determine if their contamination by aluminium and consequent issues of child health persist.

Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein.

Bettler J, Zimmer JP, Neuringer M, DeRusso PA.
Eur J Nutr. 2010 Feb;49(1):45-51.

Abstract

Background Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants.

Aim of the study To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein.

Bottle feeding simulates child loss: Postpartum depression and evolutionary medicine

Gordon G. Gallup Jr., R. Nathan Pipitone, Kelly J. Carrone and Kevin L. Leadholm
Med Hypotheses. 2010 Jan;74(1):174-6.

Summary

At the level of a mother’s basic biology, the decision to bottle feed unwittingly mimics conditions associated with the death of an infant. Child loss is a well documented trigger for depression particularly in mothers, and growing evidence shows that bottle feeding is a risk factor for postpartum depression.

Presence of Soil-Dwelling Clostridia in Commercial Powdered Infant Formulas

Barash JR, Hsia JK, Arnon SS.
J Pediatr. 2010 Mar;156(3):402-8.

Abstract

Objective Because Clostridium botulinum was isolated from powdered infant formula (PIF) fed to an infant in the United Kingdom who subsequently developed infant botulism and from unopened PIF from the same manufacturer, we tested PIF manufactured in the United States for the presence of clostridial spores.

The Risks of Not Breastfeeding for Mothers and Infants

Alison Stuebe, MD, MSc
Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Fall; 2(4): 222–231.

Abstract

Health outcomes in developed countries differ substantially for mothers and infants who formula feed compared with those who breastfeed. For infants, not being breastfed is associated with an increased incidence of infectious morbidity, as well as elevated risks of childhood obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, leukemia, and sudden infant death syndrome.

‘Voldemort’ and health professional knowledge of breastfeeding - do journal titles and abstracts accurately convey findings on differential health outcomes for formula fed infants?

Julie P Smith, Mark D Dunstone and Megan E Elliott-Rudder

Australian Centre for Economic Research on Health Working Paper Number 4, December 2008

ABSTRACT

Effective promotion of breastfeeding is constrained if health professionals' knowledge on its importance is deficient. This study asks if findings are easily accessed by health professionals; that is, whether formula feeding is ‘named’ as the risk factor in published research, or whether — like ‘Voldemort’ in Harry Potter —it is ‘He Who Shall Not Be Named’.

Marketing Infant Formula Through Hospitals: the Impact of Commercial Hospital Discharge Packs on Breastfeeding

Kenneth D. Rosenberg, Carissa A. Eastham, Lauren Kasehagen, Alfredo P. Sandoval

American Journal of Public Health, First Look, published online ahead of print Jan 2, 2008

Abstract

Objectives. Commercial hospital discharge packs are commonly given to new mothers at the time of newborn hospital discharge. We evaluated the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and the receipt of commercial hospital discharge packs in a population-based sample of Oregon women who initiated breastfeeding before newborn hospital discharge.

International Breastfeeding Initiatives and their Relevance to the Current State of Breastfeeding in the United States

Marsha Walker
J Midwifery Womens Health 2007;52:549–555

Introduction

Lactation is an ancient process that predates placental gestation. It represents the normal and expected way to feed infants and young children, yet continues to suffer from cultural and commercial barriers that make it difficult for mothers to adhere to the medical recommendation to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months, and to continue breastfeeding with appropriate complementary foods for 1 year and beyond.

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