A szoptatás egyéb hatásai

Breastfeeding and intelligence: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Horta BL, Loret de Mola C, Victora CG
Acta Paediatr. 2015 Dec;104(467):14-9.

AIM: This study was aimed at systematically reviewing evidence of the association between breastfeeding and performance in intelligence tests.

METHODS: Two independent searches were carried out using Medline, LILACS, SCIELO and Web of Science. Studies restricted to infants and those where estimates were not adjusted for stimulation or interaction at home were excluded. Fixed- and random-effects models were used to pool the effect estimates, and a random-effects regression was used to assess potential sources of heterogeneity.

Breastfeeding and nutrition to 2 years of age and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors.

Greenop KR1, Bailey HD, Miller M, Scott RJ, Attia J, Ashton LJ, Downie P, Armstrong BK, Milne E.
Nutr Cancer. 2015;67(3):431-41.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and childhood brain tumors (CBT) are 2 of the most common forms of childhood cancer, but little is known of their etiology. In 2 nationwide case-control studies we investigated whether breastfeeding, age of food introduction, or early diet are associated with the risk of these cancers. Cases aged 0-14 years were identified from Australian pediatric oncology units between 2003 and 2007 (ALL) and 2005 and 2010 (CBT) and population-based controls through nationwide random-digit dialing.

Duration of exclusive breastfeeding is associated with differences in infants’ brain responses to emotional body expressions

Much research has recognized the general importance of maternal behavior in the early development and programing of the mammalian offspring's brain. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration, the amount of time in which breastfed meals are the only source of sustenance, plays a prominent role in promoting healthy brain and cognitive development in human children. However, surprisingly little is known about the influence of breastfeeding on social and emotional development in infancy. In the current study, we examined whether and how the duration of EBF impacts the neural processing of emotional signals by measuring electro-cortical responses to body expressions in 8-month-old infants.

Estimated Exposure to Arsenic in Breastfed and Formula-Fed Infants in a United States Cohort

Background: Previous studies indicate that breast milk arsenic concentrations are relatively low even in areas with high drinking water arsenic. However, it is uncertain whether breastfeeding leads to reduced infant exposure to arsenic in regions with lower arsenic concentrations.

Objective: We estimated the relative contributions of breast milk and formula to arsenic exposure during early infancy in a U.S. population.

Breastfeeding and Dental Caries: Looking at the Evidence

Valerie Lavigne
Clinical Lactation, 2013, Vol. 4-1, 12-16.


Dental caries and prolonged breastfeeding still trigger much debate among professionals and parents. Some mothers are still being told to discontinue breastfeeding their toddlers because of cavities in the mouth. Parents often feel very discouraged and upset when they are forced to stop breastfeeding their toddlers. Dental caries is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, and is a disease of multifactorial etiology. This paper reviews the literature on dental caries and breastfeeding. This review revealed that there was no conclusive evidence that prolonged breastfeeding increased the risk of early childhood cavities.

Cortisol regulation in 12-month-old human infants: associations with the infants' early history of breastfeeding and co-sleeping

Beijers R, Riksen-Walraven JM, de Weerth C.
Stress. 2012 Nov 1.


Experiences during early life are suggested to affect the physiological systems underlying stress responses, including the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis). While stressful early experiences have been associated with dysregulated HPA-axis functioning, positive early experiences, i.e. high maternal caregiving quality, contribute to more optimal HPA-axis functioning. Influences of other early caregiving factors, however, are less well documented. The goal of this study was to examine whether breastfeeding and co-sleeping during the first six months of life was associated with infant cortisol regulation, i.e. cortisol reactivity and recovery, to a stressor at 12 months of age.

Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns related to the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition.

Romero CC, Scavone-Junior H, Garib DG, Cotrim-Ferreira FA, Ferreira RI.
J Appl Oral Sci. 2011 Apr;19(2):161-8.


OBJECTIVE: Nutritional, immunological and psychological benefits of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life are unequivocally recognized. However, mothers should also be aware of the importance of breastfeeding for promoting adequate oral development. This study evaluated the association between breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns and the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition.

Valóban meg kell-e kezdeni a hozzátáplálást 6 hónapos kor előtt?

A La Leche Liga angliai szervezetének válasza a British Medical Journal című orvosi szaklapban 2011 januárjában megjelent cikkre, amely megkérdőjelezi a hozzátáplálás nem korábban, mint 6 hónapos korban való elkezdésére vonatkozó eddigi ajánlásokat

A La Leche Liga már több mint 50 éve nyújt információt és támogatást azoknak a szülőknek, akik szoptatni szeretnék gyermeküket. Munkája során osztja a WHO, az Egészségügyi Minisztérium és más mértékadó szervezetek azon nézeteit, miszerint a csecsemők optimális növekedését, fejlődését és egészségét az szolgálja legjobban, ha életük első 6 hónapjában kizárólag szopnak. Ezután pedig a szoptatást kiegészítve kapjanak a kisbabák megfelelő minőségű ételeket, hogy növekvő, változó táplálékigényüket kielégíthessék.

Longer Breastfeeding Is Associated with Increased Lower Body Explosive Strength during Adolescence

Artero EG, Ortega FB, España-Romero V, Labayen I, Huybrechts I, Papadaki A, Rodriguez G, Mauro B, Widhalm K, Kersting M, Manios Y, Molnar D, Moreno LA, Sjöström M, Gottrand F, Castillo MJ, De Henauw S; HELENA Study Group.
J Nutr. 2010 Nov;140(11):1989-95.

The Burden of Suboptimal Breastfeeding in the United States: A Pediatric Cost Analysis

Melissa Bartick, Arnold Reinhold
PEDIATRICS (doi:10.1542/peds.2009-1616)


Background and Objective A 2001 study revealed that $3.6 billion could be saved if breastfeeding rates were increased to levels of the Healthy People objectives. It studied 3 diseases and totaled direct and indirect costs and cost of premature death. The 2001 study can be updated by using current breastfeeding rates and adding additional diseases analyzed in the 2007 breastfeeding report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein.

Bettler J, Zimmer JP, Neuringer M, DeRusso PA.
Eur J Nutr. 2010 Feb;49(1):45-51.


Background Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants.

Aim of the study To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein.

The Risks of Not Breastfeeding for Mothers and Infants

Alison Stuebe, MD, MSc
Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Fall; 2(4): 222–231.


Health outcomes in developed countries differ substantially for mothers and infants who formula feed compared with those who breastfeed. For infants, not being breastfed is associated with an increased incidence of infectious morbidity, as well as elevated risks of childhood obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, leukemia, and sudden infant death syndrome.

Breastfeeding and early infection in the aetiology of childhood leukaemia in Down syndrome

J Flores-Lujano, M L Perez-Saldivar, E M Fuentes-Pananá, C Gorodezky, R Bernaldez-Rios, M A Del Campo-Martinez, A Martinez-Avalos, A Medina-Sanson, R Paredes-Aguilera, J De Diego-Flores Chapa, V Bolea-Murga, M C Rodriguez-Zepeda, R Rivera-Luna, M A Palomo-Colli, L Romero-Guzman, P Perez-Vera, M Alvarado-Ibarra, F Salamanca-Gómez, A Fajardo-Gutierrez and J M Mejía-Aranguré

British Journal of Cancer (2009) 101, 860–864.

Exclusive Breastfeeding and the Risk of Postpartum Relapses in Women With Multiple Sclerosis

Annette Langer-Gould, Stella M. Huang, Rohit Gupta, Amethyst D. Leimpeter, Eleni Greenwood, Kathleen B. Albers, Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, Lorene M. Nelson
Arch Neurol. 2009;66(8):958-963.


Objective: To determine if exclusive breastfeeding protects against postpartum relapses of multiple sclerosis (MS) and, if so, whether this protection is related to prolonged lactational amenorrhea.

Breastfeeding—An Extrauterine Link Between Mother and Child

Samuli Rautava and W. Allan Walker
BREASTFEEDING MEDICINE Volume 4, Number 1, 2009


In addition to a near-optimal combination of nutrients for the growing infant, breastmilk contains a wide array of bioactive molecules that are known to protect the infant against infectious disease and modulate the composition of the indigenous intestinal microbiota. A growing number of factors that modulate the infant’s immunophysiology have also been identified in breastmilk.

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