Szoptatás és elhízás

Long-term effects of breastfeeding - A systematic review

Breastfeeding has well-established short-term benefits, particularly the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases in childhood. A pooled analysis of studies carried out in middle/ low income countries showed that breastfeeding substantially lowers the risk of death from infectious diseases in the first two years of life.

Based on data from the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort, Quigley et al estimated that optimal breastfeeding practices could prevent a substantial proportion of hospital admissions due to diarrhea and lower respiratory tract infection. A systematic review by Kramer et al confirmed that exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months decreases morbidity from gastrointestinal and allergic diseases, without any negative effects on growth. Given such evidence, it has been recommended that in the first six months of life, every child should be exclusively breastfed, with partial breastfeeding continued until two years of age.

What are the causal effects of breastfeeding on IQ, obesity and blood pressure? Evidence from comparing high-income with middle-income cohorts.

Brion MJ, Lawlor DA, Matijasevich A, Horta B, Anselmi L, Araújo CL, Menezes AM, Victora CG, Smith GD.
Int J Epidemiol. 2011 Jun;40(3):670-80.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: A novel approach is explored for improving causal inference in observational studies by comparing cohorts from high-income with low- or middle-income countries (LMIC), where confounding structures differ. This is applied to assessing causal effects of breastfeeding on child blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI) and intelligence quotient (IQ).

Do infants fed directly from the breast have improved appetite regulation and slower growth during early childhood compared with infants fed from a bottle?

Isselmann Disantis K, Collins BN, Fisher JO, Davey A.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011 Aug 17;8(1):89

Abstract

Background: Behavioral mechanisms that contribute to the association between breastfeeding and reduced obesity risk are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that feeding human milk from the breast (direct breastfeeding) has a more optimal association with subsequent child appetite regulation behaviors and growth than bottle-feeding.

Do Infants Fed From Bottles Lack Self-regulation of Milk Intake Compared With Directly Breastfed Infants?

Li R, Fein SB, Grummer-Strawn LM.
Pediatrics. 2010 Jun;125(6):e1386-93.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: How breastfeeding reduces the risk of childhood obesity is unclear, and 1 hypothesis pertains to the ability of breastfed infants to self-regulate. We studied whether infants' self-regulation of milk intake is affected by feeding mode (bottle versus breast) and the type of milk in the bottle (formula versus expressed breast milk).

Body mass index, adiposity rebound and early feeding in a longitudinal cohort (Raine Study).

Chivers P, Hands B, Parker H, Bulsara M, Beilin LJ, Kendall GE, Oddy WH.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Mar 30. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Objective: This study examined the influence of type and duration of infant feeding on adiposity rebound and the tracking of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years of age.

Human milk adiponectin is associated with infant growth in two independent cohorts

Woo JG, Guerrero ML, Altaye M, Ruiz-Palacios GM, Martin LJ, Dubert-Ferrandon A, Newburg DS, Morrow AL.
Breastfeed Med. 2009 Jun;4(2):101-9.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Adiponectin, a circulating adipocyte protein, is associated with lower obesity. We have previously shown that adiponectin is present in human milk. This study determined whether higher milk adiponectin is associated with infant growth and investigated milk adiponectin's oligomeric form.

Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

Jennifer L Baker, Michael Gamborg, Berit L Heitmann, Lauren Lissner, Thorkild IA Sørensen and Kathleen M Rasmussen

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 88, No. 6, 1543-1551, December 2008

Abstract

Background: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age.

Objective: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding duration is long.

Duration of lactation is associated with lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in midlife

Kavitha T. Ram, Paul Bobby, Susan M. Hailpern, Joan C. Lo, Miriam Schocken, Joan Skurnick, Nanette Santoro

American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2008; 198:3 268.e1-e6

Abstract

Objective
The objective of the study was to evaluate whether lactation duration is associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in midlife, parous women.

Breastfeeding helps explain racial and socioeconomic status disparities in adolescent adiposity

Woo JG, Dolan LM, Morrow AL, Geraghty SR, Goodman E.
Pediatrics. 2008 Mar;121(3):e458-65.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Studies suggest that breastfeeding is protective for later obesity; however, this association has not held among all racial and socioeconomic status groups. Racial and socioeconomic status differences in breastfeeding behavior have also been noted. In this study, we formally test whether breastfeeding mediates the relationship between race and socioeconomic status with adolescent adiposity.

Breastfeeding and Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes in Developed Countries

Stanley Ip, M.D., Mei Chung, M.P.H., Gowri Raman, M.D., Priscilla Chew, M.P.H., Nombulelo Magula, M.D., Deirdre DeVine, M.Litt., Thomas Trikalinos, M.D., Ph.D., Joseph Lau, M.D.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, April 2007

Structured Abstract

Objectives: We reviewed the evidence on the effects of breastfeeding on short- and long-term infant and maternal health outcomes in developed countries.

Szoptatás és a gyermekkori elhízás kockázata

Breast-Feeding and Risk for Childhood Obesity
Elizabeth J. Mayer-Davis, PHD, Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman, MPH, Li Zhou, MS1 Frank B. Hu, MD, PHD, Graham A. Colditz, MD, DRPH and Matthew W. Gillman, MD, SM
Diabetes Care 29:2231-2237, 2006

Számít-e az anyai cukorbetegség vagy az anyai elhízás?

Bevezetés

Az utóbbi időben készült meta-analízisek azt találták, hogy a szoptatás mintegy 13-22%-kal csökkenti a gyermekkori vagy a későbbi elhízás kockázatát. Harder és munkatársainak meta-analízise ezen felül megállapította, hogy a hatás dózisfüggő: minél tovább tart a szoptatás, annál kifejezettebb. A hatás alapja lehet, hogy a szoptatás esetében az anya a csecsemő igényeit veszi figyelembe az etetéskor, míg a mesterséges táplálás során az anya dönti el, hogy mennyi táplálékot fogyaszt a kisbaba. Az is lehetséges, hogy a kisbaba élettani reakciója az anyatejben lévő tápanyagokra és hormonokra a magyarázata a szoptatás növekedésre gyakorolt hatásának.

A kutatás célja: annak vizsgálata, hogy az anyai cukorbetegség ill. elhízás gyengíti-e a szoptatás már korábban kimutatott jótékony hatásait a gyermekkori elhízással kapcsolatban.

Breast-Feeding and Risk for Childhood Obesity - Does maternal diabetes or obesity status matter?

Elizabeth J. Mayer-Davis, PHD, Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman, MPH, Li Zhou, MS, Frank B. Hu, MD, PHD, Graham A. Colditz, MD, DRPH and Matthew W. Gillman, MD, SM

Diabetes Care 29:2231-2237, 2006

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE — We sought to evaluate whether maternal diabetes or weight status attenuates a previously reported beneficial effect of breast-feeding on childhood obesity.

Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight in childhood: a prospective birth cohort study from Germany

M Weyermann, D Rothenbacher and H Brenner

International Journal of Obesity (2006) 30, 1281–1287

Abstract

Background:
Whereas a recently published meta-analysis showed that ever breastfeeding reduces the risk of obesity in childhood significantly, the recent literature describing the relationship between duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight or obesity in childhood remains inconclusive.

Duration of Breastfeeding and Risk of Overweight: A Meta-Analysis

Thomas Harder, Renate Bergmann, Gerd Kallischnigg and Andreas Plagemann

American Journal of Epidemiology 2005 162(5):397-403

Observational studies suggest a longer duration of breastfeeding to be associated dose dependently with a decrease in risk of overweight in later life. The authors performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of the existing studies on duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight.

Association of Breastfeeding With Maternal Control of Infant Feeding at Age 1 Year

ABSTRACT. Objective. Previous studies have found that breastfeeding may protect infants against future overweight. One proposed mechanism is that breastfeeding, compared with bottle-feeding, may promote maternal feeding styles that are less controlling and more responsive to infant cues of hunger and satiety, thereby allowing infants greater self-regulation of energy intake.

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