Szoptatás és légzőszervi betegségek

Protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding against infections during infancy: a prospective study

Ladomenou F, Moschandreas J, Kafatos A, Tselentis Y, Galanakis E.

Arch Dis Child. 2010 Sep 27. [Epub ahead of print]


Objective To prospectively investigate the effects of breastfeeding on the frequency and severity of infections in a well-defined infant population with adequate vaccination coverage and healthcare standards.

Prolonged and Exclusive Breastfeeding Reduces the Risk of Infectious Diseases in Infancy

Duijts L, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, Moll HA.
Pediatrics. 2010 Jun 21. [Epub ahead of print]


Objective: To examine the associations of duration of exclusive breastfeeding with infections in the upper respiratory (URTI), lower respiratory (LRTI), and gastrointestinal tracts (GI) in infancy.

International study of wheezing in infants: risk factors in affluent and non-affluent countries during the first year of life

Garcia-Marcos L, Mallol J, Solé D, Brand PL; the EISL Study Group.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010 Apr 27. [Epub ahead of print]


Risk factors for wheezing during the first year of life (a major cause of respiratory morbidity worldwide) are poorly known in non-affluent countries. We studied and compared risk factors in infants living in affluent and non-affluent areas of the world. A population-based study was carried out in random samples of infants from centres in Latin America (LA) and Europe (EU).

Breast-feeding is associated with a reduced frequency of acute otitis media and high serum antibody levels against NTHi and outer membrane protein vaccine antigen candidate P6.

Sabirov A, Casey JR, Murphy TF, Pichichero ME.
Pediatr Res. 2009 Nov;66(5):565-70.


Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) causes acute otitis media (AOM) in infants. Breast-feeding protects against AOM and/or nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization; however, the mechanism of protection is incompletely understood. Children with AOM and healthy children were studied according to feeding status: breastfed,breast/formula fed, or formula fed.

Breastfeeding protects against infectious diseases during infancy in industrialized countries. A systematic review

Liesbeth Duijts, Made K. Ramadhani and Henriëtte A. Moll
Maternal & Child Nutrition Volume 5 Issue 3, Pages 199 - 210; 2009


Firstly, this review was performed to assess the effect of breastfeeding on infections during infancy in industrialized countries. Secondly, the effect of duration and exclusiveness of breastfeeding were explored.

Differential Gender Response to Respiratory Infections and to the Protective Effect of Breast Milk in Preterm Infants

M. Inés Klein, MD, Eduardo Bergel, PhD, Luz Gibbons, PhD, Silvina Coviello, MS, Gabriela Bauer, MD, Alicia Benitez, MD, M. Elina Serra, MD, M. Florencia Delgado, MS, Guillermina A. Melendi, MD, Susana Rodríguez, MD, Steven R. Kleeberger, PhD and Fernando P. Polack, MD

PEDIATRICS Vol. 121 No. 6 June 2008, pp. e1510-e1516

Breastfeeding and Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes in Developed Countries

Stanley Ip, M.D., Mei Chung, M.P.H., Gowri Raman, M.D., Priscilla Chew, M.P.H., Nombulelo Magula, M.D., Deirdre DeVine, M.Litt., Thomas Trikalinos, M.D., Ph.D., Joseph Lau, M.D.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, April 2007

Structured Abstract

Objectives: We reviewed the evidence on the effects of breastfeeding on short- and long-term infant and maternal health outcomes in developed countries.

Breastfeeding and Hospitalization for Diarrheal and Respiratory Infection in the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort Study

Maria A. Quigley, MSc, Yvonne J. Kelly, PhD and Amanda Sacker, PhDb

PEDIATRICS Vol. 119 No. 4 April 2007, pp. e837-e842


OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of breastfeeding on hospitalization for diarrheal and lower respiratory tract infections in the first 8 months after birth in contemporary United Kingdom.

Full Breastfeeding and Hospitalization as a Result of Infections in the First Year of Life

José María Paricio Talayero, MD, PhD, Máxima Lizán-García, MD, PhD, Ángel Otero Puime, MD, PhD, María José Benlloch Muncharaz, MD, Beatriz Beseler Soto, MD, Marta Sánchez-Palomares, MD, Luis Santos Serrano, MD and Leonardo Landa Rivera, MD

PEDIATRICS Vol. 118 No. 1 July 2006, pp. e92-e99


OBJECTIVE. Our objective was to assess the effect of breastfeeding on the probability of hospitalization as a result of infectious processes during the first year of life.

Exclusive Breastfeeding Protects Against Bacterial Colonization and Day Care Exposure to Otitis Media

Objective. We followed a cohort (N = 306) of infants at well-baby visits in two suburban pediatric practices to assess the relation of exclusive breastfeeding, and other environmental exposures, to episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME).
PEDIATRICS Vol. 100 No. 4 October 1997, p. e7

A teljes cikk itt olvasható.

TGF-β in human milk is associated with wheeze in infancy

Oddy WH, Halonen M, Martinez FD, Lohman IC, Stern DA, Kurzius-Spencer M, Guerra S, Wright AL.
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Oct;112(4):723-8.


BACKGROUND: Cytokines secreted in human milk might play important roles in newborn health and in the development of infant immune responses. We investigated the relationship of the concentration and dose of cytokines in human milk to infant wheeze at 1 year of age.

Infant growth and health outcomes associated with 3 compared with 6 mo of exclusive breastfeeding

Michael S Kramer, Tong Guo, Robert W Platt, Zinaida Sevkovskaya, Irina Dzikovich, Jean-Paul Collet, Stanley Shapiro, Beverley Chalmers, Ellen Hodnett, Irina Vanilovich, Irina Mezen, Thierry Ducruet, George Shishko and Natalia Bogdanovich

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 78, No. 2, 291-295, August 2003

Breastfeeding and the Risk of Hospitalization for Respiratory Disease in Infancy: a meta-analysis

Bachrach VR, Schwarz E, Bachrach LR.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003 Mar;157(3):237-43.


OBJECTIVE: To examine breastfeeding and the risk of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract disease in healthy full-term infants with access to modern medical care.

The effects of respiratory infections, atopy, and breastfeeding on childhood asthma

W.H. Oddy, N.H. de Klerk, P.D. Sly, P.G. Holt
Eur Respir J 2002; 19:899-905


The objectives of the present study were to quantify the association of atopy and respiratory infections with asthma, and exclusive breastfeeding with respiratory illness, atopy and asthma in children.

Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT): A Randomized Trial in the Republic of Belarus

Michael S. Kramer et al.
JAMA. 2001;285:413-420.


Context Current evidence that breastfeeding is beneficial for infant and child health is based exclusively on observational studies. Potential sources of bias in such studies have led to doubts about the magnitude of these health benefits in industrialized countries.

Objective To assess the effects of breastfeeding promotion on breastfeeding duration and exclusivity and gastrointestinal and respiratory infection and atopic eczema among infants.

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