Sullivan S, Schanler RJ, Kim JH, Patel AL, Trawöger R, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, Chan GM, Blanco CL, Abrams S, Cotten CM, Laroia N, Ehrenkranz RA, Dudell G, Cristofalo EA, Meier P, Lee ML, Rechtman DJ, Lucas A.
J Pediatr. 2009 Dec 24. [Epub ahead of print]
Objective To evaluate the health benefits of an exclusively human milk–based diet compared with a diet of both human milk and bovine milk–based products in extremely premature infants.
Study design Infants fed their own mothers’ milk were randomized to 1 of 3 study groups. Groups HM100 and HM40 received pasteurized donor human milk–based human milk fortifier when the enteral intake was 100 and 40 mL/kg/d, respectively, and both groups received pasteurized donor human milk if no mother’s milk was available. Group BOV received bovine milk–based human milk fortifier when the enteral intake was 100 mL/kg/d and preterm formula if no mother’s milk was available. Outcomes included duration of parenteral nutrition, morbidity, and growth.
Results The 3 groups (total n = 207 infants) had similar baseline demographic variables, duration of parenteral nutrition, rates of late-onset sepsis, and growth. The groups receiving an exclusively human milk diet had significantly lower rates of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC; P = .02) and NEC requiring surgical intervention (P = .007).
Conclusions For extremely premature infants, an exclusively human milk–based diet is associated with significantly lower rates of NEC and surgical NEC when compared with a mother’s milk–based diet that also includes bovine milk–based products.