Breast growth and the urinary excretion of lactose during human pregnancy and early lactation: endocrine relationships

DB Cox, JC Kent, TM Casey, RA Owens, and PE Hartmann

Exp Physiol 1999;84;421-434

Breast volume and morphology of eight subjects were measured before conception and at intervals throughout pregnancy until 1 month of lactation. Breast volume before conception ranged from 293 to 964 ml. At the end of pregnancy the volume of breast tissue had increased by 145+/-19 ml (mean+/-S.E.M., n = 13 breasts, range 12-227 ml) with a further increase to 211+/-16 ml (n = 12 breasts, range 129-320 ml) by 1 month of lactation.

Urinary excretion of lactose increased at 22 weeks of pregnancy, signalling the capacity of the breast to synthesize lactose at this time.
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Breast volume and milk production during extended lactation in women

JC Kent, L Mitoulas, DB Cox, RA Owens, and PE Hartmann

Exp Physiol 1999;84;435-447

Quantitative measurements were made of relative breast volume and milk production from 1 month of lactation until 3 months after weaning, and the storage capacity of the breasts was calculated. The increase in breast tissue volume from before conception until 1 month of lactation was maintained for the first 6 months of lactation (means+/-S.E.M.) (190.3+/-13.1 ml, number of breasts, nb = 46). During this period of exclusive breast-feeding, 24 h milk production from each breast remained relatively constant (453.6+/-201 g, nb = 48), and storage capacity was 209.9+/-11.0 ml (nb = 46).
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Violations of the international code of marketing of breast milk substitutes: prevalence in four countries

The World Health Organisation estimates that 1.5 million babies could be prevented from dying each year if women breast fed their infants (exclusively for about 6 months and until infants were 2 years old). Where a mother uses an alternative to breast milk to feed her baby, it is important that she makes an informed decision and that she has not been pressured by commercial promotions to use a substitute. The international code of marketing of breast milk substitutes was adopted by the World Health Assembly in 1981 to encourage breast feeding and to protect mothers from pressure to use substitutes for breast milk.
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Breastfeeding Provides Passive and Likely Long-Lasting Active Immunity

Lars A Hanson
Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 1998, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 523 – 537


Objectives: The reader of this review will learn about the mechanisms through which breastfeeding protects against infections during and most likely after lactation, as well as possibly against certain immunologic diseases, including allergy.

Data sources: I have followed the literature in the area closely for the last 30 to 40 years and have made repeated literature searches through MEDLINE, most recently in 1998. Textbooks and peer-reviewed journals have been sought for, as well as books representing meeting reports in English, French, German, and Spanish.
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RELACTATION – A review of experience and recommendations for practice

Elizabeth Hormann and Felicity Savage.

World Health Organization
Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 1998


WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding for at least the first 4 and if possible the first 6 months of an infant’s life, and continued breastfeeding with adequate complementary food for up to two years of age or more. Yet many infants stop breastfeeding in the first few weeks or months and, as a result, are at increased risk of illness, malnutrition and death.

Breastfeeding can however be re-established. A woman who has stopped breastfeeding her child, recently or in the past, can resume the production of breastmilk for her own or an adopted infant, even without a further pregnancy.
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Randomised trial of early diet in preterm babies and later intelligence quotient

Lucas A, Morley R, Cole TJ.
BMJ. 1998 Nov 28;317(7171):1481-7.


OBJECTIVES: To determine whether perinatal nutrition influences cognitive function at 7 1/2 – 8 years in children born preterm.

DESIGN: Randomised, blinded nutritional intervention trial. Blinded follow up at 7 1/2 – 8 years.

SETTING: Intervention phase in two neonatal units; follow up in a clinic or school setting.

SUBJECTS: 424 preterm infants who weighed under 1850 g at birth; 360 of those who survived were tested at 7 1/2 – 8 years.

INTERVENTIONS: Standard infant formula versus nutrient enriched preterm formula randomly assigned as sole diet (trial A) or supplements to maternal milk (trial B) fed for a mean of 1 month.
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Breast milk contamination and silicone implants: preliminary results using silicon as a proxy measurement for silicone.

Semple JL, Lugowski SJ, Baines CJ, Smith DC, McHugh A.
Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998 Aug;102(2):528-33.


In response to concerns about contamination of human breast milk from silicone gel-filled breast implants, and because silicon levels are assumed to be a proxy measurement for silicone, we compared silicon levels in milk from lactating women with and without implants. Two other sources of infant nutrition, cow’s milk and infant formulas, were also analyzed for silicon. The survey took place at the Breast-feeding Clinic at Women’s College Hospital in Toronto.

A convenience sample of lactating women, 15 with bilateral silicone gel-filled implants and 34 with no implants, was selected.
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Kangaroo Mother Care and the Bonding Hypothesis

Réjean Tessier, Marta Cristo, Stella Velez, Marta Girón, SW, Zita Figueroa de Calume, Juan G. Ruiz-Paláez, Yves Charpak, Nathalie Charpak

PEDIATRICS Vol. 102 No. 2 August 1998, p. e17


Kangaroo mother care (KMC) was first suggested in 1978 by Dr Edgar Rey in Bogotá, Colombia. It was developed initially as a way of compensating for the overcrowding and scarcity of resources in hospitals caring for low birth weight (LBW) infants. The term KMC is derived from practice similarities to marsupial caregiving, ie, the premature infant is kept warm in the maternal pouch and close to the breasts for unlimited feeding.
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Local control of mammary development and function

Christopher H. Knight, Malcolm Peaker and Colin J. Wilde

Reviews of Reproduction 1998 May;3(2):104-12. Review.


For the mother, lactation represents the final stage of an investment in her genetic material. Like any investment it is costly and, hence, it needs to be carefully controlled. To her offspring, lactation means survival, so it must happen at any cost. This apparent conflict is rationalized by the mother devolving some control to the offspring while retaining ultimate sanction herself. Part of this results from overt and more subtle influences of the presence of young on the mother’s endocrine system, but an equally important part operates at each mammary gland to ensure that output is appropriate to the needs of the young, and no more.
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Maternal Body Composition, Caloric Restriction and Exercise during Lactation: An Overview

Kathryn G. Dewey

The Journal of Nutrition Vol. 128 No. 2 February 1998, pp. 379S-380S

During the postpartum period, facilitating a woman’s return to her prepregnancy weight is a key element in preventing or reducing adult obesity in affluent populations, yet for breastfeeding women there is always a concern that rapid weight loss may compromise lactation. The authors of the papers in this symposium were asked to consider several issues that relate to this concern.
First, what changes in body weight and composition are to be expected during lactation, and what are the factors that influence these changes?

Folytatás a Journal of Nutrition oldalán.
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