Body Composition Changes during Lactation Are Highly Variable among Women

Nancy F. Butte and Judy M. Hopkinson

The Journal of Nutrition Vol. 128 No. 2 February 1998, pp. 381S-385S

Abstract

Changes in body weight and composition in response to the metabolic load imposed by lactation are highly variable among and within diverse populations. In most reports, rates of weight loss did not differ between lactating and nonlactating women. Despite differences in the hormonal milieu between lactating and nonlactating women, only subtle short-term differences were observed in postpartum changes in body composition. Regional patterns of fat deposition and mobilization did not differ between lactating and nonlactating women in most studies. Changes in body composition during lactation are responses to a sequence of complex neuroendocrine and biochemical stimuli that may be significantly modified by environmental factors.
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Effects of Maternal Caloric Restriction and Exercise during Lactation

Kathryn G. Dewey

The Journal of Nutrition Vol. 128 No. 2 February 1998, pp. 386S-389S

Abstract

In affluent populations, breast-feeding women often wish to return to their prepregnancy weight as soon as possible postpartum and may restrict energy intake or increase exercise to achieve this goal. Gradual weight loss (<= 2 kg/mo) seems to have no adverse effect on milk volume or composition, provided that the mother is not undernourished and is breast-feeding her infant on demand. Aerobic exercise improves cardiovascular fitness and does not affect milk energy transfer to the infant, but exercise alone is not likely to increase the rate of weight loss unless dietary intake is controlled.
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Breastfeeding and Maternal Tuberculosis

Az egészségügyi dolgozók gyakran kerülnek olyan helyzetbe, hogy tanácsot kell adniuk, vajon biztonságos-e egy tuberculosisban szenvedő édesanya esetében a szoptatás. Korábban ilyen esetben a csecsemőt elkülönítették az anyától, legalábbis arra az időre, amíg az anya fertőzőképes volt. Az elkülönítés a szoptatást és a baba gondozását lehetetlenné tette az édesanya számára, a csecsemőt pedig – a mesterséges táplálás következtében – a fertőzések és az alultápláltság kockázatának tette ki. Ezek az intézkedések ma már nem javasoltak.

A teljes cikk a WHO oldalán olvasható.
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Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk

AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS
Work Group on Breastfeeding
PEDIATRICS Vol. 100 No. 6 December 1997, pp. 1035-1039

Abstract

This policy statement on breastfeeding replaces the previous policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics, reflecting the considerable advances that have occurred in recent years in the scientific knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding, in the mechanisms underlying these benefits, and in the practice of breastfeeding. This document summarizes the benefits of breastfeeding to the infant, the mother, and the nation, and sets forth principles to guide the pediatrician and other health care providers in the initiation and maintenance of breastfeeding. The policy statement also delineates the various ways in which pediatricians can promote, protect, and support breastfeeding, not only in their individual practices but also in the hospital, medical school, community, and nation.
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Infant Arousals During Mother-Infant Bed Sharing: Implications for Infant Sleep and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Research

Sarah Mosko, Christopher Richard, James McKenna

PEDIATRICS Vol. 100 No. 5 November 1997, pp. 841-849

Abstract

Objective. Normative values for infant sleep architecture have been established exclusively in the solitary sleeping environment. However, most of the world’s cultures practice some form of parent-infant cosleeping. In addition, no previous polysomnographic studies in infants examined the frequency of electroencephalogram (EEG) arousals. This is the first study to assess (a) EEG arousals in infants and their relationship to sleep stages; (b) the impact on arousals of mother-infant bed sharing; and (c) the temporal overlap of infant with maternal arousals during bed sharing.

Methodology. Three nights of polysomnography were performed in 35 breastfeeding mother-infant pairs when the infants were 11 to 15 weeks old.
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Breastfeeding and The Use of Water and Teas

World Health Organization, 1997

On both theoretical and empirical grounds it is concluded that these supplementary fluids are not needed to maintain water balance in healthy infants younger than six months who are exclusively breastfed.

A teljes cikk itt olvasható.
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A Review of the Medical Benefits and Contraindications to Breastfeeding in the United States

Ruth A. Lawrence, M.D., 1997.

(Maternal and Child Health Technical Information Bulletin). Arlington, VA: National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health

In any statement about breastfeeding and breastmilk (human milk), it is important first to establish breastmilk’s distinct and irreplaceable value to the human infant. Breastmilk is more than just good nutrition. Human breastmilk is specific for the needs of the human infant just as the milk of thousands of other mammalian species is specifically designed for their offspring. The unique composition of breastmilk provides the ideal nutrients for human brain growth in the first year of life.

Cholesterol, desoxyhexanoic acid, and taurine are particularly important.
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Excretion of citalopram in breast milk

Olav Spigset, Lena Carleborg, Robert Öhman & Åke Norström
Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 44: 295–298

Abstract

Aims The objective of this study was to measure the secretion of the selective serotonin uptake inhibitor citalopram in breast milk.

Methods The excretion of citalopram in breast milk was studied at steady-state conditions in two patients with depression and in one healthy volunteer after ingestion of a single dose citalopram.

Results Milk/serum concentration ratios based on single pairs of samples from the two patients ranged from 1.16 to 1.88. Based on milk concentration data from the patients, the absolute dose ingested by a suckling infant would be 4.3–17.6 μg kg−1 day−1, and the relative dose 0.7–5.9% of the weight-adjusted maternal dose.
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A Longitudinal Analysis of Infant Morbidity and the Extent of Breastfeeding in the United States

Paula D. Scariati, Laurence M. Grummer-Strawn, Sara Beck Fein
PEDIATRICS Vol. 99 No. 6 June 1997, pp. e5

Abstract

Background. Studies on the health benefits of breastfeeding in developed countries have shown conflicting results. These studies often fail to account for confounding, reverse causality, and dose-response effects. We addressed these issues in analyzing longitudinal data to determine if breastfeeding protects US infants from developing diarrhea and ear infections.

Methods. Mothers participating in a mail panel provided information on their infants at ages 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 months. Infants were classified as exclusively breastfed; high, middle, or low mixed breast- and formula-fed; or exclusively formula-fed.
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Drug distribution in human milk – Dental implications

Prepared by Dr R.G. Woods of the Australian Dental Association

Aust Prescr 1997;20:51

Practical, clinical issues concerning drugs in human milk arise frequently in dentistry because mothers present for elective treatment which has been postponed during pregnancy. Treatment provided for nursing mothers may be third molar surgery, periodontal treatment, prophylaxis, endodontic care or dental restorative procedures. Nursing mothers are generally concerned about any possible effect dental treatment, including drugs, may have on their milk or on the nursing infant.

Where single doses of drugs are used, e.g. local anaesthetics or parenterally administered sedatives, the effects on human milk are likely to be minimal.
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