Bejegyzés

A humán mikrobiom program az Amerikai Egészségügyi Intézet jelentős vállalkozása volt egy viszonylag egyszerű célkitűzéssel: meg akarták érteni, milyen baktérium telepek élnek az emberi test belsejében és felszínén – és milyen hatással lehetnek ezek a telepek az egészségünkre.

A több száz személy által adományozott minták közt a széklettől az orrváladékig minden előfordult. Azonban egy kulcsfontosságú mintát figyelmen kívül hagytak: az anyatejet. Úgy bizony – az anyatej mikrobiomját nem vizsgálták. Ebben nyilván szerepe volt a régóta fennálló tévhitnek, hogy az anyatej steril. Ugyan, miért vizsgálnánk valamit, ami steril?

De hamarosan kiderült, hogy az anyatej távol áll a sterilitástól. Egy csecsemő átlagosan napi 800 ml anyatejet fogyaszt, és ezzel együtt 100 milliárd és 10 billió közötti baktériumot is felvesz.
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Hassiotou F, Geddes D.
Clin Anat. 2013 Jan;26(1):29-48.

Abstract

Mammary glands are unique to mammals, with the specific function of synthesizing, secreting, and delivering milk to the newborn. Given this function, it is only during a pregnancy/lactation cycle that the gland reaches a mature developmental state via hormonal influences at the cellular level that effect drastic modifications in the micro- and macro-anatomy of the gland, resulting in remodeling of the gland into a milk-secretory organ. Pubertal and post-pubertal development of the breast in females aids in preparing it to assume a functional state during pregnancy and lactation. Remarkably, this organ has the capacity to regress to a resting state upon cessation of lactation, and then undergo the same cycle of expansion and regression again in subsequent pregnancies during reproductive life.
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Mizuno K, Nishida Y, Taki M, Murase M, Mukai Y, Itabashi K, Debari K, Iiyama A.
Int Breastfeed J. 2009 Jul 16;4:7.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: It is known that the fat content of breast milk is higher in hindmilk than in foremilk. However, it has not been determined if this increased fat content results from an increase in the number of milk fat globules (MFGs), an increase in the size of MFGs, or both. This study aims to determine which factor plays the most important role.

METHODS: Thirteen breastfeeding mothers were enrolled in the study and we obtained 52 samples from 26 breasts before (foremilk) and after (hindmilk) a breastfeeding session.
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Doucet S, Soussignan R, Sagot P, Schaal B.
Early Hum Dev. 2011 Aug 16. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

The early nursing-sucking relationship is not to be taken for granted in humans. A number of factors can either facilitate or mitigate its optimal establishment on the mother’s or newborn’s sides. Among these factors, a morphological feature of human mothers’ breasts – the areolar glands (AG) – has been identified as potentially important.

Three day-old infants display attraction during the presentation of the native secretions of the AG, suggesting that they could influence the newborn’s behaviour during breastfeeding. The present study assessed this topic in a sample of 121 Caucasian mother-infant dyads.
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Ramos-Román MA.
Horm Metab Res. 2011 Aug;43(9):593-600.

Abstract

Pregnancy and puerperium are periods of intense hormonal changes. Maternal metabolism adapts to spare the mother from harm on behalf of her developing offspring and major alterations maintain normal glucose tolerance. Insulin secretion increases during a normal pregnancy to compensate for pregnancy-induced insulin resistance and maintain euglycemia. Women at risk for gestational diabetes have insulin resistance before conception. Gestational diabetes develops when a woman at risk is unable to meet the insulin secretory demands imposed by the additional insulin resistance characteristic of pregnancy.

The lactogens, human placental lactogen and prolactin, are major stimuli for the adaptation of the endocrine pancreas during gestation.
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Nancy Mohrbacher
Clinical Lactation 2011 2(1):15-18

Abstract

Worry about milk production is the most common reason women wean earlier than planned. In many cases this worry is due to confusion about how milk production works. This article describes a teaching concept, termed the Magic Number. Clinicians can use this concept to provide mothers who are not exclusively breastfeeding on cue a clear, evidence-based understanding of how to keep their milk production stable over the long term.

With unrestricted access to the breast, most babies can easily adjust their mother’s milk production by simply changing their breastfeeding length and frequency. However, many mothers with milk-production issues are not exclusively breastfeeding.
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Fan Y, Chong YS, Choolani MA, Cregan MD, Chan JK.
PLoS One. 2010 Dec 28;5(12):e14421.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Mammary stem cells have been extensively studied as a system to delineate the pathogenesis and treatment of breast cancer. However, research on mammary stem cells requires tissue biopsies which limit the quantity of samples available. We have previously identified putative mammary stem cells in human breast milk, and here, we further characterised the cellular component of human breast milk.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified markers associated with haemopoietic, mesenchymal and neuro-epithelial lineages in the cellular component of human breast milk. We found 2.6 ± 0.8% (mean ± SEM) and 0.7 ± 0.2% of the whole cell population (WCP) were found to be CD133+ and CD34+ respectively, 27.8 ± 9.1% of the WCP to be positive for Stro-1 through flow-cytometry.
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Pisacane A, Continisio P, Palma O, Cataldo S, De Michele F, Vairo U.
Pediatrics. 2010 May 17. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of breastfeeding on the risk for fever after routine immunizations.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a pediatric vaccination center in Naples, Italy. The mothers of the infants scheduled to receive routine immunizations were instructed on how to measure and record infant temperature on the evening of the vaccination and for the subsequent 3 days. The information about the incidence of fever was obtained by telephone on the third day after vaccination.
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Menzies KK, Lee HJ, Lefèvre C, Ormandy CJ, Macmillan KL, Nicholas KR.
Funct Integr Genomics. 2010 Mar;10(1):87-95.

Abstract

Murine milk protein gene expression requires insulin, hydrocortisone, and prolactin; however, the role of insulin is not well understood. This study, therefore, examined the requirement of insulin for milk protein synthesis.

Mammary explants were cultured in various combinations of the lactogenic hormones and global changes in gene expression analysed using Affymetrix microarray. The expression of 164 genes was responsive to insulin, and 18 were involved in protein synthesis at the level of transcription and posttranscription, as well as amino acid uptake and metabolism.
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Bettler J, Zimmer JP, Neuringer M, DeRusso PA.
Eur J Nutr. 2010 Feb;49(1):45-51.

Abstract

Background Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants.

Aim of the study To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein.

Methods A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infants (n = 26) randomized between 9 and 16 days of age to study formulas containing 20 (unfortified), 45, 120, and 225 mcg/l of lutein.
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