Tag Archive for: A laktáció biológiája

Human milk adiponectin is associated with infant growth in two independent cohorts

Woo JG, Guerrero ML, Altaye M, Ruiz-Palacios GM, Martin LJ, Dubert-Ferrandon A, Newburg DS, Morrow AL.
Breastfeed Med. 2009 Jun;4(2):101-9.


BACKGROUND: Adiponectin, a circulating adipocyte protein, is associated with lower obesity. We have previously shown that adiponectin is present in human milk. This study determined whether higher milk adiponectin is associated with infant growth and investigated milk adiponectin’s oligomeric form.

DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a study of two parallel longitudinal cohorts of breastfed infants born between 1998 and 2005. Forty-five mother-infant pairs from Cincinnati, OH and 277 mother-infant pairs from Mexico City, Mexico were analyzed. All participants were healthy, term infants breastfed at least 1 month who completed 6 months of follow-up.
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Breastfeeding—An Extrauterine Link Between Mother and Child

Samuli Rautava and W. Allan Walker
BREASTFEEDING MEDICINE Volume 4, Number 1, 2009


In addition to a near-optimal combination of nutrients for the growing infant, breastmilk contains a wide array of bioactive molecules that are known to protect the infant against infectious disease and modulate the composition of the indigenous intestinal microbiota. A growing number of factors that modulate the infant’s immunophysiology have also been identified in breastmilk.

We suggest that this early immunomodulation via breastmilk is vital for infant health and may explain the epidemiological data indicating that breastmilk reduces the risk of immunoinflammatory conditions in infancy and also later in life.
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Ultrasound imaging of the lactating breast: methodology and application

Donna T Geddes
International Breastfeeding Journal 2009, 4:4


Ultrasound imaging has been used extensively to detect abnormalities of the non-lactating breast. In contrast, the use of ultrasound for the investigation of pathology of the lactating breast is limited. Recent studies have re-examined the anatomy of the lactating breast highlighting features unique to this phase of breast development.

These features should be taken into consideration along with knowledge of common lactation pathologies in order to make an accurate diagnosis when examining the lactating breast. Scanning techniques and ultrasound appearances of the normal lactating breast will be contrasted to those of the non-lactating breast.
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Effects of Different CMV-Heat-Inactivation-Methods on Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk

Rangmar Goelz, Eva Hihn, Klaus Hamprecht, Klaus Dietz, Gerhard Jahn, Christian Poets,
and Martin Elmlinger
Pediatr Res 65: 458–461, 2009

Preterm infants can inoculate virulent cytomegalovirus (CMV) through their mothers’ raw breast milk. Complete virus inactivation is achieved only by heat treatment, but the effect on growth factors has never been assessed systematically.

Neither long- nor short-time heating methods changed the concentration of EGF. Only short heating methods (5 s, 62–72°C) can preserve, almost completely, the concentrations of IGFs in human milk, whereas Holder-Pasteurization does not.

A cikk teljes szövege

Pediatric Research főoldal
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Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor is a major motogenic and protective factor in human breast milk

Tania Marchbank, Gillian Weaver, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton and Raymond J. Playford

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296: G697-G703, 2009.

Colostrum is the first milk produced after birth and is rich in immunoglobulins and bioactive molecules. We examined whether human colostrum and milk contained pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI), a peptide of potential relevance for mucosal defense and, using in vitro and in vivo models, determined whether its presence influenced gut integrity and repair.

Human milk stimulated migration and proliferation about threefold and reduced indomethacin-induced apoptosis by about 70–80%. Sixty-five percent of the migratory effect of human milk could be removed by immunoneutralization of PSTI.
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Oropharyngeal administration of colostrum to extremely low birth weight infants: theoretical perspectives

N A Rodriguez, P P Meier, M W Groer and J M Zeller

Journal of Perinatology (2009) 29, 1–7

Own mother’s colostrum (OMC) is rich in cytokines and other immune agents that provide bacteriostatic, bacteriocidal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory protection against infection. OMC may be especially protective for the extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant in the first days of life; however clinical instability typically precludes enteral feedings during this period.

Oropharyngeal administration is a potential alternative method of providing OMC. Oropharyngeal administration of OMC may have immunomodulatory effects on the recipient infant, and would be especially beneficial to the ELBW infant who would otherwise remain nil per os during the first days of life.
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Optimal positions for the release of primitive neonatal reflexes stimulating breastfeeding

Colson SD, Meek JH, Hawdon JM.
Early Hum Dev. 2008 Jul;84(7):441-9.


BACKGROUND: Despite widespread skills-teaching, 37% of UK mothers initiating breastfeeding stop by six weeks suggesting a need to reappraise current support strategies. Rooting, sucking and swallowing have been studied extensively but little is known about the role other primitive neonatal reflexes (PNRs) might play to support breastfeeding.

AIMS: To describe and compare PNRs observed during feeding, investigating whether certain feeding behaviours and positions, collectively termed Biological Nurturing, (BN) are associated with the release of those reflexes pivotal in establishing successful feeding.

METHOD: 40 breastfed healthy term mother/baby pairs were recruited using quota sampling to stratify term gestational age.
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Emergent Synchronous Bursting of Oxytocin Neuronal Network

Enrico Rossoni, Jianfeng Feng, Brunello Tirozzi, David Brown, Gareth Leng, Françoise Moos

PLoS Comput Biol 4(7): e1000123 (2008)


When young suckle, they are rewarded intermittently with a let-down of milk that results from reflex secretion of the hormone oxytocin; without oxytocin, newly born young will die unless they are fostered. Oxytocin is made by magnocellular hypothalamic neurons, and is secreted from their nerve endings in the pituitary in response to action potentials (spikes) that are generated in the cell bodies and which are propagated down their axons to the nerve endings. Normally, oxytocin cells discharge asynchronously at 1–3 spikes/s, but during suckling, every 5 min or so, each discharges a brief, intense burst of spikes that release a pulse of oxytocin into the circulation.
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Tongue movement and intra-oral vacuum in breastfeeding infants

Geddes DT, Kent JC, Mitoulas LR, Hartmann PE.
Early Hum Dev. 2008 Jul;84(7):471-7.


OBJECTIVE: The mechanism by which the breastfeeding infant removes milk from the breast is still controversial. It is unclear whether the infant uses predominantly intra-oral vacuum or a peristaltic action of the tongue to remove milk from the breast. The aim of this study was to use ultrasound to observe movements of the tongue during breastfeeding and relate these movements to both milk flow and simultaneous measurements of intra-oral vacuum.

METHODS: Submental ultrasound scans of the oral cavity of 20 breastfed infants (3-24 weeks old) were performed during a breastfeed.
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Differential transfer of dietary flavour compounds into human breast

Hausner H, Bredie WL, Mølgaard C, Petersen MA, Møller P.

Physiol Behav. 2008 May 15.


Transfer of dietary flavour compounds into human milk is believed to constitute the infant’s early flavour experiences. This study reports on the time-dependent transfer of flavour compounds from the mother’s diet to her breast milk using a within-subject design. Eighteen lactating mothers completed three test days on which they provided a baseline milk sample prior to ingestion of capsules containing 100 mg d-carvone, l-menthol, 3-methylbutyl acetate and trans-anethole. Milk samples were collected 2, 4, 6 and 8 h post-ingestion and analysed by a dynamic headspace method and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy.
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