Tag Archive for: A szoptatás egyéb hatásai

Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding: systematic review and meta-analyses

Bernardo L. Horta, Rajiv Bahl, José C. Martines, Cesar G. Victora
World Health Organization 2007

Executive summary

Background: Breastfeeding presents clear short-term benefits for child health, mainly protection against morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. On the other hand, there is some controversy on the long-term consequences of breastfeeding. Whereas some studies reported that breastfed subjects present a higher level of school achievement and performance in intelligence
tests, as well as lower blood pressure, lower total cholesterol and a lower prevalence of overweight
and obesity, others have failed to detect such associations.

Objectives: The primary objective of this series of systematic reviews was to assess the effects of breastfeeding on blood pressure, diabetes and related indicators, serum cholesterol, overweight and obesity, and intellectual performance.
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Infant nutrition and stereoacuity at age 4–6 y

Atul Singhal, Ruth Morley, Tim J Cole, Kathy Kennedy, Patricia Sonksen, Elizabeth Isaacs, Mary Fewtrell, Alun Elias-Jones, Terence Stephenson and Alan Lucas

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 85, No. 1, 152-159, January 2007


Background: Breastfeeding has been reported to benefit visual development in children. A higher concentration of docosahexaneoic acid (DHA) in breast milk than in formula has been proposed as one explanation for this association and as a rationale for adding DHA to infant formula, but few long-term data support this possibility.

Objective: The objectives of the study were, first, to test the hypothesis that breastfeeding benefits stereoscopic visual maturation and, second, if that benefit is shown, to ascertain whether it is mediated by the dietary intake of DHA.
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Breastfeeding and Developmental Delay: Findings From the Millennium Cohort Study

Amanda Sacker, PhD, Maria A. Quigley, MS and Yvonne J. Kelly, PhD

PEDIATRICS Vol. 118 No. 3 September 2006, pp. e682-e689


OBJECTIVE. We investigated whether the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding affects the likelihood of gross and fine motor delay in infants and examined the effect of factors that might explain any observed differences.

METHODS. The study sample included all term singleton infants who weighed >2500 g at birth and were not placed in a special care infant unit and whose mothers participated in the first survey of the Millennium Cohort Study. Missing data reduced the sample to 14660 (94%) with complete data.
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Review of Case-Control Studies Related to Breastfeeding and Reduced Risk of Childhood Leukemia

Jeanne-Marie Guise, Donald Austin and Cynthia D. Morris

Pediatrics 2005;116;724-731


Objective. To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the evidence for the effect of breastfeeding on the risk of developing childhood leukemia.

Review Methods. We sought studies providing data regarding the association of breastfeeding and occurrence of childhood leukemia. Studies were identified by using Medline, HHS Blueprint for Action on Breastfeeding, US Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women’s Health, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, National Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, reference lists, and national experts.
Methodologic quality was evaluated for each study by using criteria from the US Preventive Services Task Force and the National Health Service Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.
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Differences Between Exclusive Breastfeeders, Formula-Feeders, and Controls: A Study of Stress, Mood, and Endocrine Variables

Maureen W. Groër, PhD, RN, FAAN

Biological Research For Nursing, Vol. 7, No. 2, 106-117 (2005)

The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among lactational status, naturalistic stress, mood, and levels of serum cortisol and prolactin and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
Eighty-four exclusively breastfeeding, 99 exclusively formula-feeding, and 33 nonpostpartum healthy control women were studied. The postpartum mothers were studied cross-sectionally once between 4 and 6 weeks after the birth. Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale, the Tennessee Postpartum Stress Scale, and the Inventory of Small Life Events. Mood was measured using the Profile of Mood States.
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Breast Milk: An Optimal Food

Jenny Pronczuk, Gerald Moy, and Constanza Vallenas

Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Sep;112(13):A722-3.

Human breast milk offers the optimal nutrition for all infants and provides immunological, developmental, psychological, economic, and practical advantages when compared to artificial feeding. For proper growth, development, and health, infants should be exclusively breastfed with no other food or drink–not even water–for their first 6 months of life [World Health Organization (WHO) 2001]; they should then receive nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods while breast-feeding continues up to 24 months of age or beyond.

Given the considerable benefits of breast-feeding for mothers and children everywhere, special efforts are being undertaken by the WHO and partners to promote it in all countries.
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Neurodevelopment in Children Born Small for Gestational Age

A Randomized Trial of Nutrient-Enriched Versus Standard Formula and Comparison With a Reference Breastfed Group

Objective. Many studies have shown that children born small for gestational age (SGA) are at a neurodevelopmental disadvantage. We have shown that nutrient enrichment of formula fed to term SGA infants improves their growth and hypothesized that it also would improve their neurodevelopmental outcome.

Conclusions. The previously reported enhanced linear growth in SGA children fed enriched formula was not matched by a neurodevelopmental advantage. At 9 months, girls fed the enriched formula had a significant developmental disadvantage, although this was not seen at 18 months.
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Breastfeeding and the Risk of Postneonatal Death in the United States

Objective. Breastfed infants in the United States have lower rates of morbidity, especially from infectious disease, but there are few contemporary studies in the developed world of the effect of breastfeeding on postneonatal mortality. We evaluated the effect of breastfeeding on postneonatal mortality in United States using 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS) data.

Results. Overall, children who were ever breastfed had 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67–0.93) times the risk of never breastfed children for dying in the postneonatal period. Longer breastfeeding was associated with lower risk. Odds ratios by cause of death varied from 0.59 (95% CI: 0.38–0.94) for injuries to 0.84 (95% CI: 0.67–1.05) for sudden infant death syndrome.
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Exclusive Breastfeeding of Healthy Term Infants for at Least 6 Weeks Improves Neurological Condition

H. Bouwstra, E. R. Boersma, G. Boehm, D.A.J. Dijck-Brouwer, F.A.J. Muskiet and M. Hadders-Algra

J. Nutr. 133:4243-4245, December 2003


To investigate the minimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding for optimal neurological outcome, we assessed the quality of general movements (GM) at 3 mo of 147 breastfed healthy term infants that were followed from birth. The quality of GM is a sensitive marker of neurological condition. The quality of GM was classified as normal-optimal, normal-suboptimal, mildly abnormal and definitely abnormal. Information on social and pre- and perinatal conditions and the duration of breastfeeding was collected prospectively. Logistical regression analyses were used to adjust for confounders.
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Quantifying the Benefits of Breastfeeding: A Summary of the Evidence

Natalia León-Cava, Chessa Lutter, Jay Ross, Luann Martin

The Food and Nutrition Program (HPN)
Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
The LINKAGES Project
2002 June

This annotated bibliography summarizes the published literature on the following six topics related to the benefits of breastfeeding:

  • Infant morbidity because of diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, otitis media and ear infections, and other infectious diseases
  • Infant mortality because of diarrhea, acute respiratory infection, and all causes
  • Child development
  • Chronic diseases, particularly obesity, diabetes, and cancer
  • Maternal health effects, with special emphasis on breast and ovarian cancers
  • Economic benefits

The work described here attests to the enormous benefits of breastfeeding in terms of infant health, intellectual and motor development, later chronic disease risk, and maternal health.
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