Bejegyzés

Figueiredo B, Dias CC, Brandão S, Canário C, Nunes-Costa R.
J Pediatr (Rio J). 2013 Jul-Aug;89(4):332-8.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the association between breastfeeding and postpartum depression.

SOURCES: A review of literature found on MEDLINE/PubMed database.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: The literature consistently shows that breastfeeding provides a wide range of benefits for both the child and the mother. The psychological benefits for the mother are still in need of further research. Some studies point out that pregnancy depression is one of the factors that may contribute to breastfeeding failure. Others studies also suggest an association between breastfeeding and postpartum depression; the direction of this association is still unclear.
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Wiklund P et al.
Public Health Nutr. 2011 Aug 23:1-8.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term effects of duration of postpartum lactation on maternal body composition and risk for cardio-metabolic disorders in later life.

DESIGN: Retrospective study. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum glucose, insulin and lipids were analysed using enzymatic photometric methods 16-20 years after the last pregnancy. Medical history and lifestyle factors were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Detailed information regarding weight change patterns during each pregnancy was obtained from personal maternity tracking records.

SETTING: City of Jyväskylä and surroundings in Central Finland.

SUBJECTS: Two hundred and twelve women (mean age 48, range 36-60 years).
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Ramos-Román MA.
Horm Metab Res. 2011 Aug;43(9):593-600.

Abstract

Pregnancy and puerperium are periods of intense hormonal changes. Maternal metabolism adapts to spare the mother from harm on behalf of her developing offspring and major alterations maintain normal glucose tolerance. Insulin secretion increases during a normal pregnancy to compensate for pregnancy-induced insulin resistance and maintain euglycemia. Women at risk for gestational diabetes have insulin resistance before conception. Gestational diabetes develops when a woman at risk is unable to meet the insulin secretory demands imposed by the additional insulin resistance characteristic of pregnancy.

The lactogens, human placental lactogen and prolactin, are major stimuli for the adaptation of the endocrine pancreas during gestation.
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Kathleen Kendall–Tackett, Zhen Cong, Thomas W. Hale
Clinical Lactation, Volume 2, Issue 2, 2011

Abstract

When a breastfeeding mother is depressed – or even at risk for depression – she is often advised to supplement with formula so that she can get more sleep. Results of recent studies suggest, however, that exclusively breastfeeding mothers actually get more sleep than their mixed- or formula-feeding counterparts. The present study examines the relationship between feeding method, maternal well-being, and postpartum depression in a sample of 6,410 mothers of infants 0-12 months of age.

Our findings revealed that women who were breastfeeding reported significantly more hours of sleep, better physical health, more energy, and lower rates of depression than mixed- or formula-feeding mothers.
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Alison M. Stuebe, Walter C. Willett, Fei Xue, Karin B. Michels

Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(15):1364-1371.

Background Findings from observational studies suggest an inverse association between lactation and premenopausal breast cancer risk, but results are inconsistent, and data from large prospective cohort studies are lacking.

Methods We used information from 60 075 parous women participating in the prospective cohort study of the Nurses’ Health Study II from 1997 to 2005. Our primary outcome was incident premenopausal breast cancer.

Conclusion In this large, prospective cohort study of parous premenopausal women, having ever breastfed was inversely associated with incidence of breast cancer among women with a family history of breast cancer.
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Annette Langer-Gould, Stella M. Huang, Rohit Gupta, Amethyst D. Leimpeter, Eleni Greenwood, Kathleen B. Albers, Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, Lorene M. Nelson
Arch Neurol. 2009;66(8):958-963.

Abstract

Objective: To determine if exclusive breastfeeding protects against postpartum relapses of multiple sclerosis (MS) and, if so, whether this protection is related to prolonged lactational amenorrhea.

Design: We conducted structured interviews to assess clinical, menstrual, and breastfeeding history during each trimester and 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months postpartum and collected neurological examination findings from the treating physicians of women with MS. Hazards ratios (HRs) were adjusted for measures of disease severity and age.
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E. Sibolboro Mezzacappa and J. Endicott

Arch Womens Ment Health. 2007 Nov 26 [Epub ahead of print]

Summary

Maternal depression is the most common complication of the postpartum, having devastating and long lasting effects on mother and infant. Lactation is associated with attenuated stress responses, especially that of cortisol, and the lactogenic hormones, oxytocin and prolactin, are associated with anti-depressant and anxiolytic effects. These associations suggest that breast-feeding may decrease maternal depressive symptoms, yet empirical results have been conflicting. Recent findings have indicated that parity may mediate the association between breast-feeding and stress response.

Because a decreased stress response is associated with a decreased risk for depression, parity may also mediate the association between infant feeding method and depressive symptoms.
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A csecsemőtáplálás módjának a csecsemő és az anya egészségére gyakorlt hatásával kapcsolatos kutatási eredmények jól áttekinthető összefoglalása.

Letölthető a La leche League International oldaláról.
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Groer MW, Davis MW, Smith K, Casey K, Kramer V, Bukovsky E.

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2005 Oct;54(4):222-31.

PROBLEM: Little is known about immunological recovery in post-partum women and if lactational status affects immunocompetence. Many physiological changes occur, such as uterine involution and recovery of non-pregnant immune status. These changes may also affect susceptibility to disease.

METHOD: The study compared immune and inflammatory activation markers (serum cytokines, Epstein Barr viral antibody titer, neopterin, c-reactive protein (CRP), lymphocyte subset percentages, ex vivo cytokine production, lymphocyte proliferation, salivary Immunoglubulin A (sIgA) in exclusively breastfeeding (EB) and exclusively formula feeding (EF) women at 4-6 weeks post-partum, and control (C) women.
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H. Jernström, J. Lubinski, H. T. Lynch, P. Ghadirian, S. Neuhausen, C. Isaacs, B. L. Weber, D. Horsman, B. Rosen, W. D. Foulkes, E. Friedman, R. Gershoni-Baruch, P. Ainsworth, M. Daly, J. Garber, H. Olsson, P. Sun, S. A. Narod

Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 96, No. 14, 1094-1098, July 21, 2004

Abstract

Background: Several studies have reported that the risk of breast cancer decreases with increasing duration of breast-feeding. Whether breast-feeding is associated with a reduced risk of hereditary breast cancer in women who carry deleterious BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is currently unknown.

Methods: We conducted a case–control study of women with deleterious mutations in either the BRCA1 or the BRCA2 gene.
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