Bejegyzés

Eleget szopott a baba?

Vajon eleget szopik, eleget hízik a kisbabám? Szinte minden édesanyát foglalkoztatnak ezek a kérdések, és mivel mi, felnőttek különbözőek vagyunk, gyerekeinktől sem várhatunk mást. Az egyik baba gömbölyded, a másik hosszú és vékonyka, ám mindkét változat egészséges!

Érdekes jószág az ember. Könnyen elfogadjuk „normálisnak”, ha valaki egy mázsát nyom, de azt is, ha valaki ötven kiló – vagyis feleannyi. Attól sem esünk ámulatba, ha egy-egy felnőtt ismerősünk naponta csak kétszer-háromszor eszik, de akkor telerakja a tányérját, míg sok embertársunk jóval többször ül asztalhoz, néhány falat kedvéért. Ezzel ellentétben a csecsemőktől sokan elvárnák, hogy étvágyuktól és alkatuktól függetlenül olyan gyakran egyenek, és abban az iramban gyarapodjanak, ahogy a nagykönyvben meg van írva.
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Weight monitoring of breastfed babies in the UK – centile charts, scales and weighing frequency

Magda Sachs ba, ma, Fiona Dykes phd, ma, cert ed, adm, rgn, rm and Bernie Carter phd, pgce, bsc, srn, rscn
Matern Child Nutr. 2005 Apr;1(2):63-76.

Abstract

Weighing infants during their first 6 months is an important focus of growth monitoring and a common activity of child health care services worldwide. In these same months, health workers provide support for breastfeeding and promote continued exclusive breastfeeding. The literature on the practice of weighing breastfed babies is reviewed, as it applies to the United Kingdom. The shape of the growth curves for breastfed babies differs from that of formula-fed infants and also from centile charts previously in use.
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Weight monitoring of breastfed babies in the United Kingdom – interpreting, explaining and intervening

Magda Sachs BA, MA (Cantab), Fiona Dykes PhD, MA, Cert Ed, ADM, RGN, RM and Bernie Carter PhD, PGCE, BSC, SRN, RSCN
Matern Child Nutr. 2006 Jan;2(1):3-18.

Abstract

Weighing infants in their first 6 months is an important aspect of growth monitoring and a common activity of child health care services worldwide. During the same 6 months, support for establishing breastfeeding and the promotion of continued exclusive breastfeeding are important activities of health professionals. Parents and health professionals may perceive conflicts between achieving both robust growth and continuing breastfeeding. In this narrative review, the literature on weighing breastfed babies in the United Kingdom is examined.
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The WHO Child Growth Standards

This web site presents the WHO Child Growth Standards. These standards were developed using data collected in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study. The site presents documentation on how the physical growth curves and motor milestone windows of achievement were developed as well as application tools to support implementation of the standards.

A növekedési görbék innen letölthetők.
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Infant growth and health outcomes associated with 3 compared with 6 mo of exclusive breastfeeding

Michael S Kramer, Tong Guo, Robert W Platt, Zinaida Sevkovskaya, Irina Dzikovich, Jean-Paul Collet, Stanley Shapiro, Beverley Chalmers, Ellen Hodnett, Irina Vanilovich, Irina Mezen, Thierry Ducruet, George Shishko and Natalia Bogdanovich

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 78, No. 2, 291-295, August 2003

Abstract

Background: Opinions and recommendations about the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding have been strongly divided, but few published studies have provided direct evidence on the relative risks and benefits of different breastfeeding durations in recipient infants.

Objective: We examined the effects on infant growth and health of 3 compared with 6 mo of exclusive breastfeeding.

Design: We conducted an observational cohort study nested within a large randomized trial in Belarus by comparing 2862 infants exclusively breastfed for 3 mo (with continued mixed breastfeeding through >= 6 mo) with 621 infants who were exclusively breastfed for >= 6 mo.
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The Optimal Duration of Exclusive Breastfeding – A Systematic Review

MICHAEL S. KRAMER, MD, RITSUKO KAKUMA, MSc

World Health Organization, 2002

Abstract

Background: The longstanding debate over the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding has centered on the so-called “weanling’s dilemma” in developing countries: the choice between the known protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding against infectious morbidity and the (theoretical) insufficiency of breast milk alone to satisfy the infant’s energy and micronutrient requirements beyond 4 months of age. The debate over whether to recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 4–6 months vs “about 6 months” has recently become more intense.

Objectives: The primary objective of this review was to assess the effects on child health, growth, and development, and on maternal health, of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months vs exclusive breastfeeding for 3–4 months with mixed breastfeeding (introduction of complementary liquid or solid foods with continued breastfeeding) thereafter through 6 months.
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Report of The Expert Consultation on The Optimal Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding

World Health Organization, 2002

The objectives of the expert consultation were:

  • To review the scientific evidence on the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding;
  • To formulate recommendations for practice on the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding;
  • To formulate recommendations for research needs in this area.

Summary of the findings

A systematic review of current scientific evidence on the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding identified and summarized studies comparing exclusive breastfeeding* for 4 to 6 months, versus 6 months, in terms of growth, infant iron status, morbidity, atopic disease, motor development, postpartum weight loss, and amenorrhea. It should be noted that the review was based on two small controlled trials and 17 observational studies that varied in both quality and geographic provenance.
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Nutrient Adequacy of Exclusive Breastfeeding for The Term Infant During The First 6 Months of Life

NANCY F. BUTTE, PHD, MARDIA G. LOPEZ-ALARCON, MD, PHD, CUTBERTO GARZA, MD, PHD

World Health Organization, 2002

This review, which was prepared as part of the background documentation for a WHO expert consultation, evaluates the nutrient adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding for term infants during the first 6 months of life. Nutrient intakes provided by human milk are compared with infant nutrient requirements. To avoid circular arguments, biochemical and physiological methods, independent of human milk, are used to define these requirements.

In this review nutrient adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding is most commonly evaluated in terms of growth. Other functional outcomes, e.g. immune response and neurodevelopment, are considered when data are available.
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Effects of Exclusive Breastfeeding for Four versus Six Months on Maternal Nutritional Status and Infant Motor Development

Kathryn G. Dewey, Roberta J. Cohen, Kenneth H. Brown and Leonardo Landa Rivera

Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131:262-267.

Abstract

To examine whether the duration of exclusive breastfeeding affects maternal nutrition or infant motor development, we examined data from two studies in Honduras: the first with 141 infants of low-income primiparous women and the second with 119 term, low birth weight infants.

In both studies, infants were exclusively breastfed for 4 mo and then randomly assigned to continue exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until 6 mo or to receive high-quality, hygienic solid foods (SF) in addition to breast milk between 4 and 6 mo. Maternal weight loss between 4 and 6 mo was significantly greater in the exclusive breastfeeding group (EBF) group than in the group(s) given solid foods (SF) in study 1 (-0.7 ± 1.5 versus -0.1 ± 1.7 kg, P < 0.05) but not in study 2.
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Age of introduction of complementary foods and growth of term, low-birth-weight, breast-fed infants

Kathryn G Dewey, Roberta J Cohen, Kenneth H Brown and Leonardo Landa Rivera

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 69, No. 4, 679-686, April 1999

Abstract

Background: The optimal age at which to introduce complementary foods is a topic of considerable debate.

This study was designed to evaluate this issue in a nutritionally vulnerable population in Honduras.

Design: Mothers of low-birth-weight (1500–2500 g) term (ie, small-for-gestational-age) infants were recruited in the hospital and assisted with exclusive breast-feeding during the first 4 mo. At 4 mo, mothers were randomly assigned to either continue exclusive breast-feeding to 6 mo (EBF; n = 59) or to feed complementary solid foods (jarred rice cereal, chicken, and fruit and vegetables) twice daily from 4 to 6 mo while continuing to breast-feed at their initial frequency (SF; n = 60).

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