Midwives׳ experiences with mother-infant skin-to-skin contact after a caesarean section: ‘Fighting an uphill battle’.

Zwedberg S, Blomquist J, Sigerstad E.
Midwifery. 2015 Jan;31(1):215-20.


OBJECTIVE: to explore midwives׳ experiences and perceptions of skin-to-skin contact between mothers and their healthy full-term infants immediately and during the first day after caesarean section.

DESIGN: qualitative interviews with semi-structured questions.

SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: eight midwives at three different hospitals in Stockholm participated in the study. All participants provided care for mothers and their newborn infants after caesarean birth.

ANALYSIS: transcribed material was analysed and interpreted using qualitative content analysis. The analysis yielded the theme ‘fighting an uphill battle’.

FINDINGS: skin-to-skin contact was considered to be important, and something that midwives strove to implement as a natural element of postnatal care.
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Immediate or early skin-to-skin contact after a Caesarean section: a review of the literature

Stevens J, Schmied V, Burns E, Dahlen H.
Maternal & Child Nutrition. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12128


The World Health Organization and the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund recommends that mothers and newborns have skin-to-skin contact immediately after a vaginal birth, and as soon as the mother is alert and responsive after a Caesarean section. Skin-to-skin contact can be defined as placing a naked infant onto the bare chest of the mother. Caesarean birth is known to reduce initiation of breastfeeding, increase the length of time before the first breastfeed, reduce the incidence of exclusive breastfeeding, significantly delay the onset of lactation and increase the likelihood of supplementation.
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Császár után

Egy éve dolgozom az egészségügyben. Egy év alatt annyit tanultam, mint azelőtt összesen. Többek között azt, milyen fontos néha csak ülni valahol, és nem csinálni semmit. Ilyen helyzet, amikor anya és baba először találkoznak.

Eddig bába és szülész ismerőseimtől hallottam arról, mekkora művészet valahol csak ott lenni, nem is szólni, szinte észrevétlenül belesimulni a környezetbe, csak annyira látszani, hogy az anya biztonságérzete meglegyen. Sokan erre képtelenek, úgy érzik, tenni kell valamit, különben miért is lennének ott. Vagy tenni kell valamit a fizetésükért/fizetségükért. Vagy azért, hogy bebizonyítsák: itt szükség van a szaktudásukra. Vagy azért, hogy végre történjen már valami. Pedig néha fontos, hogy úgy legyünk az anya mellett, mintha ott sem lennénk.
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Early Skin-to-Skin After Cesarean to Improve Breastfeeding

Hung KJ, Berg O.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2011 Sep-Oct;36(5):318-24.


This article describes a quality improvement project in which early skin-to-skin (STS) contact, in the operating room (OR) and during recovery, was used as an intervention to increase the success of breastfeeding initiation among healthy infants after cesarean, at a large, urban, acute care teaching hospital. The nursing role is key for the intervention, but the program involves the entire perinatal team, including the obstetricians, pediatricians, and anesthesiologists.

During the first 3 months of our intervention, the rate of early STS among healthy babies born by cesarean increased from 20% to 68%.
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Diversity of the Lactobacillus group in breast milk and vagina of healthy women and potential role in the colonization of the infant gut

R. Martín, G.H.J. Heilig, E.G. Zoetendal, H. Smidt and J.M. Rodríguez

Journal of Applied Microbiology 103 (6), 2638–2644.


Aims: To evaluate the diversity of the Lactobacillus group in breast milk and the vagina of healthy women and understand their potential role in the infant gut colonization using the 16S rRNA gene approaches.

Methods and Results: Samples of breast milk, vaginal swabs and infant faeces were aseptically collected from five mothers whose neonates were born by vaginal delivery and another five that had their babies by caesarean section. After polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using Lactobacillus group-specific primers, amplicons were analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).
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Skin-to-Skin Care with the Father after Cesarean Birth and Its Effect on Newborn Crying and Prefeeding Behavior

Kerstin Erlandsson, RNM, MNursSci, Ann Dsilna, RN, BSc, Ingegerd Fagerberg, RNT, PhD and Kyllike Christensson, RNM, PhD

Birth 34 (2), 105–114.


Background: Previous reports have shown that skin-to-skin care immediately after vaginal birth is the optimal form of care for full-term, healthy infants. Even in cases when the mother is awake and using spinal analgesia, early skin-to-skin contact between her and her newborn directly after cesarean birth might be limited for practical and medical safety reasons. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of skin-to-skin contact on crying and prefeeding behavior in healthy, full-term infants born by elective cesarean birth and cared for skin-to-skin with their fathers versus conventional care in a cot during the first 2 hours after birth.
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