Bejegyzés

A cumihasználat lelki zavarokhoz vezethet fiúknál

A cumizás megzavarhatja a fiúcsecsemők emocionális fejlődését, mivel a cumi akadályozza a fiatal csecsemőt abban, hogy érzelmeit arckifejezéssel hozza környezete tudtára.

A University of Wisconsin-Madison kutatói három, egymástól független vizsgálat alapján összefüggést találtak a fiúcsecsemők gyakori cumizása , illetve az emocionális érési folyamat kifejezési formáinak zavara között.

A Basic and Applied Social Psychology című lapban közölt kutatás volt az első ilyen típusú vizsgálat, mely összefüggést igazolt a pszichológiai kimenetel és a cumihasználat között.

Az amerikai gyermekgyógyász társaság (AAP, American Academy of Pediatrics) és az Egészségügyi Világszervezet (WHO) korábban a cumizás idejének korlátozását javasolt a csecsemők és kisgyermekek esetében. A korábbi kutatások arra utaltak, hogy kedvezően hathat a szoptatásra, ha a csecsemő nem cumizik.
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Factors predicting early discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of life

Vieira GO, Martins CC, Vieira TO, de Oliveira NF, Silva LR.
J Pediatr (Rio J). 2010 Sep-Oct;86(5):441-4.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of lactation, in the city of Feira de Santana, Brazil.

METHODS: Cohort study with follow-up of 1,309 mother-child pairs selected from all maternities in the municipality. Data were collected in hospital and in home visits during the first month of life. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between outcome and variables of interest.

RESULTS: Lack of prior breastfeeding experience (PR 1.24; 95%CI 1.75-1.43), cracked nipples (PR 1.25; 95%CI 1.09-1.43), use of fixed breastfeeding schedules (PR 1.42; 95%CI 1.09-1.84) and pacifier use (PR 1.53; 95%CI 1.34-1.76) were identified as factors predicting discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding.
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Pacifier habit: history and multidisciplinary view

Silvia Diez Castilho,Marco Antônio Mendes Rocha
J Pediatr (Rio J). 2009;85(6):480-489

Abstract

Objectives: To review the history of pacifiers and to compile a multidisciplinary literature review, searching for pros and cons with the purpose of providing health professionals with arguments when parents request guidance.

Sources: History and art books, as well as non-medical literature and museums were used in the historical survey. Multidisciplinary data were collected from MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and The Cochrane Library. Search criteria were: the keyword “pacifiers” present in articles published in the last 5 years that included abstract and were written in Portuguese, English, or Spanish.

Summary of the findings: There is evidence that their precursors have been used since the Neolithic Period to calm down children.
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How Are Effective Breastfeeding Technique and Pacifier Use Related to Breastfeeding Problems and Breastfeeding Duration?

Hanne Kronborg, Michael Væth
BIRTH 36:1 March 2009

Background: Inconsistent findings leave uncertainty about the impact of pacifier use on effective breastfeeding technique. The purpose of this study was to investigate how breastfeeding technique and pacifier use were related to breastfeeding problems and duration of breastfeeding.

Methods: Data were collected from the intervention group of a randomized trial in which health visitors followed up with mothers for 6 months after childbirth. The health visitors classified the breastfeeding technique at approximately 1 week after birth and repeated the observation if a correction was necessary….The primary outcome was duration of exclusive breastfeeding.

Results: ….
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The Pacifier Debate

Stuebe A, Lee K.
Pediatrics. 2006 May;117(5):1848-9

Letters to the Editor

In their recent Pediatrics article, Hauck et al1 reported on the association between pacifier use at last sleep and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and recommended universal pacifier use to reduce the risk of SIDS.

It is far from clear, however, that pacifiers play a causal role in SIDS. Each of the 9 studies in the meta-analysis conducted by Hauck et al used a case-control design to assess whether a pacifier was used during the last sleep before SIDS death, or the sleep among control infants. In such a study design, there is potential for differential recall bias between parents of infants with SIDS and those of control infants on the basis of both the timing of the questioning and the parents’ perceptions of whether pacifier use is “right.” If an infant usually used a pacifier, it seems unlikely that control parents could recall whether the infant did or did not accept a pacifier in an otherwise unremarkable sleep period.
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Surface electromyography of facial muscles during natural and artificial feeding of infants

Cristiane F. Gomes, Ercília M. C. Trezza, Emílio C. M. Murade, Carlos R. Padovani

J Pediatr (Rio J). 2006;82(2):103-9

Abstract

Objective: To measure and compare the activity of the masseter, temporalis and buccinator muscles in different infant feeding methods.

Method: Cross-sectional study of 60 full-term infants with no intercurrent diseases, aged between two and three months, classified into the following groups: 1) exclusive breastfeeding; 2) breastfeeding plus bottle-feeding; and 3) exclusive breastfeeding plus cup feeding. Surface electromyography was performed during infant feeding. The Krushal-Wallis test was used, complemented by multiple paired comparisons of the groups. A 5% significance level was chosen for the tests.
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Pacifier use and its relationship with early weaning in infants born at a Child-Friendly Hospital

Maria Emília de Mattos Soares, Elsa Regina Justo Giugliani, Maria Luiza Braun,
Ana Cristina Nunes Salgado, Andréa Proenço de Oliveira, Paulo Rogério de Aguiar

J Pediatr (Rio J) 2003;79(4):309-16

Introduction

Pacifiers are widely used in many parts of the world, despite the fact that both the World Health Organization (1) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (2) advise against their use, especially with children who are being breastfed. Research carried out in Brazil into all of the state capitals with the exception of Rio de Janeiro, in October 1999, revealed that 53% of children less than one year old were using pacifiers (3).
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Randomized Clinical Trial of Pacifier Use and Bottle-Feeding or Cupfeeding and Their Effect on Breastfeeding

Cynthia R. Howard, MD, MPH, Fred M. Howard, MD, Bruce Lanphear, MD, MPH, Shirley Eberly, MS, Elisabeth A. deBlieck, MPA, David Oakes, PhD and Ruth A. Lawrence, MD

PEDIATRICS Vol. 111 No. 3 March 2003, pp. 511-518

Abstract

Objective. To enhance breastfeeding practices, the World Health Organization discourages pacifiers and bottle-feeding. However, the effect of artificial nipples on breastfeeding duration is poorly defined. The effects of 2 types of artificial nipple exposure on breastfeeding duration were evaluated: 1) cupfeeding versus bottle-feeding for the provision of in-hospital supplements and 2) early (2–5 days) versus late (>4 weeks) pacifier introduction.

Methods. A total of 700 breastfed newborns (36–42 weeks, birth weight >=2200 g) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 intervention groups: bottle/early pacifier (n = 169), bottle/late pacifier (n = 167), cup/early pacifier (n = 185), or cup/late pacifier (n = 179).
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Pacifier as a Risk Factor for Acute Otitis Media: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Parental Counseling

Marjo Niemelä, MD, PhD, Outi Pihakari, MB, Tytti Pokka, BSc, Marja Uhari, MScDagger , and Matti Uhari, MD, PhD

PEDIATRICS Vol. 106 No. 3 September 2000, pp. 483-488

Abstract

Objectives. To evaluate the association between pacifier use and the increased occurrence of acute otitis media (AOM) in an intervention trial.

Methods. Fourteen well-baby clinics were selected to participate in an open, controlled cohort study. These clinics were paired according to the number of children and the social classes of the parents they served. One clinic in each pair was randomly allocated for an intervention, while the other served as a control.
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Breastfeeding Patterns in Relation to Thumb Sucking and Pacifier Use

Clara Aarts, MSc, Agneta Hörnell, Elisabeth Kylberg, PhD, Yngve Hofvander, MD, PhD, and Mehari Gebre-Medhin, MD, MPH, PhD

PEDIATRICS Vol. 104 No. 4 October 1999, p. e50

Abstract

Objectives. To analyze the influence of thumb sucking and pacifier use on breastfeeding patterns in exclusively breastfed infants, on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and on the total breastfeeding duration.

Study Design. Descriptive, longitudinal, prospective study.

Setting. The subjects were recruited from a population of 15 189 infants born in the maternity ward at the University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden between May 1989 and December 1992.

Study Population. 506 mother-infant pairs.

Methods. Daily recordings by the mothers on infant feeding from the first week after delivery through the duration of the study.
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