Tag Archive for: Gyakorlati útmutatók

Breast-feeding: Good Starts, Good Outcomes

Marsha Walker RN, IBCLC
Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing July/September 2007 Volume 21 Number 3 Pages 191 – 197


Meeting national breast-feeding objectives and mothers’ personal breast-feeding goals depends on a number of factors, including the provision of current, consistent, and timely help with breast-feeding. Nurses are in a prime position to guide mothers during their hospital stay and provide community follow-up postdischarge.

Mothers and infants need to acquire a set of breast-feeding skills prior to hospital discharge so that a mother goes home confident that she can adequately nourish her infant, initiate and maintain an abundant milk supply, avoid problems, and address them if they occur.
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How to assess slow growth in the breastfed infant. Birth to 3 months.

Powers NG.

Pediatr Clin North Am. 2001 Apr;48(2):345-63.


Pediatricians must monitor early breastfeeding to detect and manage breastfeeding difficulties that lead to slow weight gain and subsequent low milk production. Infant growth during the first 3 months of life provides a clear indication of breastfeeding progress. Healthy, breastfed infants lose less than 10% of birth weight and return to birth weight by age 2 weeks. They then gain weight steadily, at a minimum of 20 g per day, from age 2 weeks to 3 months. Any deviation from this pattern is cause for concern and for a thorough evaluation of the breastfeeding process.
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Breastfeeding: Managing ‘supply’ difficulties

Lisa Helen Amir MBBS, MMed, PhD

Aust Fam Physician. 2006 Sep;35(9):686-9.


Many breastfeeding women have concerns about their milk supply; ‘not enough milk’ is the most common reason women give for stopping breastfeeding, however their concern is often unwarranted.

The article describes the process of history taking and examination of mother and infant to determine if the mother’s milk supply is adequate, the causes of insufficient milk supply, and possible investigations and management.

Insufficient milk supply may be secondary to maternal conditions such as postpartum haemorrhage or breast reduction surgery, or infant factors such as tongue-tie or ill health.
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Counseling the Breastfeeding Mother

Carol L Wagner, Eric M Graham, William W Hope, Nikki Hughes
Medscape Emedicine, 2006 September

This article reviews the mechanics of breastfeeding, correct breastfeeding techniques, and sufficient versus insufficient milk supplies. A discussion of early follow-up of the breastfeeding mother-infant dyad and the warning signs of difficulties in that dyad are also included.

Emphasis is placed on assessing the breastfeeding neonate and determining when neonatal jaundice, more common in breastfed infants, is pathologic. Finally, common breastfeeding problems are discussed, with emphasis on their early recognition and management.

A cikk teljes szövege

Emedicine főoldal
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Infant and young child feeding: standard recommendations for the European Union


Breastfeeding is the natural way to feed infants and young children. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life ensures optimal growth, development and health. After that, breastfeeding, with appropriate complementary foods, continues to contribute to the infant’s and young child’s growth, development and health. Low rates and early cessation of breastfeeding have important adverse health, social and economic implications for women, children, the community and the environment, result in greater expenditure on national health care provision, and may increase inequalities in health. Despite difficulties in interpreting available data, it is clear that current initiation, exclusivity and duration rates of breastfeeding in virtually every country worldwide, including EU countries, fall short of recommended levels.
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The CDC Guide to Breastfeeding Interventions

Katherine R. Shealy, MPH, IBCLC, RLC; Ruowei Li, MD, PhD; Sandra Benton-Davis, RD, LD; Laurence M. Grummer-Strawn, PhD

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005.

This document provides guidance and direction in selecting a breastfeeding intervention. It offers the most relevant information on each type of intervention to help the reader make wise decisions.

The following categories of information have been included:

Definition Briefly describes the intervention, including its target audience and specific goals.

Rationale Explains why a particular type of interven-tion is important to breastfeeding.

Evidence of Effectiveness Draws on the major peer-reviewed literature to summarize support for the intervention as well as evidence of no effects or of a negative effect.
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Clinical Guidelines for the Establishment of Exclusive Breastfeeding


Revision Task Force: Mary L. Overfield, MN, RN, IBCLC; Carol A. Ryan, MSN, RN, IBCLC; Amy Spangler, MN, RN, IBCLC; Mary Rose Tully, MPH, IBCLC


Az anya és a gyermek egészsége már régóta világszerte az érdeklődés középpontjában áll. Az emberi jogok 1948-ban ratifikált nyilatkozata kimondja, hogy „az anyaságnak és a gyermekkornak különleges gondozáshoz és segítséghez van joga.” A gyermeki jogokról szóló, 1989-ben ratifikált egyezmény szavatolja a gyermekeknek az egészség legmagasabb elérhető fokához való jogát. Egyéb egyezmények és nemzetközi egyetértési dokumentumok annak a nem szerinti megkülönböztetésnek a visszaszorítására összpontosítanak, amely alááshatja az egészséget, kivált fiatal lányok és nők körében.
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Guiding principles for feeding non-breastfed children 6-24 months of age

World Health Organization, 2005

According to current UN recommendations, infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life, and thereafter should receive appropriate complementary feeding with continued breastfeeding up to two years or beyond. However, there are a number of infants who will not be able to enjoy the benefits of breastfeeding in the early months of life or for whom breastfeeding will stop before the recommended duration of two years or beyond.

PAHO’s publication Guiding Principles for Complementary Feeding of the Breastfed Child (2003) provides guidance on appropriate feeding of breastfed infants from six months onwards. Some of these guiding principles are applicable to non-breastfed children, but others are not, or require adaptation.
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Szoptatás katasztrófahelyzetben

Az UNICEF információs levele arról, miért szükséges az anyatejes táplálás fenntartása és segítése katasztrófa sújtotta területeken.

Részlet a levélből:


–UNICEF has a Core Corporate Commitment in the first 6-8 weeks of an emergency
to “Provide child and maternal feeding and nutritional monitoring: support infant and young child feeding, therapeutic and supplementary feeding programmes with WFP and NGO partners. Introduce nutritional monitoring and surveillance.” These activities should continue after 8 weeks as well.
As the lead UN Children’s Agency, this area remains UNICEF responsibility no matter
which agency is the lead.

Suggested actions:

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Guiding principles for feeding infants and young children during emergencies



Principle 1
Infants born into populations affected by emergencies should normally be exclusively breastfed from birth to 6 months of age.

  • 1.1 Every effort should be made to identify alternative ways to breastfeed infants whose biological mothers are unavailable.

Principle 2
The aim should be to create and sustain an environment that encourages frequent breastfeeding for children up to two years or beyond.

Breast-milk substitutes

Principle 3
The quantity, distribution and use of breast-milk substitutes at emergency sites should be strictly controlled.

  • 3.1 A nutritionally adequate breast-milk substitute should be available, and fed by cup, only to those infants who have to be fed on breast-milk substitutes.

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