Tag Archive for: Gyakorlati útmutatók

Counseling the Breastfeeding Mother

This article reviews the mechanics of breastfeeding, correct breastfeeding techniques, and sufficient versus insufficient milk supplies. A discussion of early follow-up of the breastfeeding mother-infant dyad and the warning signs of difficulties in that dyad are also included. Emphasis is placed on assessing the breastfeeding neonate and determining when neonatal jaundice is pathologic. Finally, common breastfeeding problems are discussed, with emphasis on their early recognition and management. For more information about the physiology of lactation and about the structure and biochemical features of human milk, please see the eMedicine article Human Milk and Lactation.

A teljes cikk az eMedicine.com weboldalon olvasható.
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Managing Newborn Problems – A Guide for Doctors, Nurses and Midwives

A newborn baby who is small or has a potentially life-threatening problem is in an emergency situation requiring immediate diagnosis and management. Delay in identification of the problem or in providing the correct management may be fatal. This guide provides up-to-date, authoritative clinical guidelines for use at the first referral level in low-resource settings by the doctors,nurses, midwives, and other health care workers who are responsible for the care of newborn babies with problems during the first week(s) of life. The guide can also be used to identify less common conditions that require referral to a higher level.
World Health Organization 2003

A teljes dokumentum a WHO oldalán található.
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Guiding Principles for Complementary Feeding of The Breastfed Child

Complementary feeding is defined as the process starting when breast milk alone is no longer sufficient to meet the nutritional requirements of infants, and therefore other foods and liquids are needed, along with breast milk. The target age range for complementary feeding is generally taken to be 6 to 24 months of age, even though breastfeeding may continue beyond two years. A review of feeding guidelines promoted by various national and international organizations has shown that there are inconsistencies in the specific recommendations for feeding infants and young children (Dewey, in press).

Some of the feeding guidelines are based more on tradition and speculation than on scientific evidence, or are far more prescriptive than is necessary regarding issues such as the order of foods introduced and the amounts of specific foods to be given.
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Evidence-Based Guidelines for Breastfeeding Management during the first Fourteen Days

The American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Family Medicine, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend breastfeeding as the appropriate way to feed infants. Nonetheless, studies show that as many as 50% of infants are weaned from the breast within the first 14 days. Therefore, this document focuses on the establishment and maintenance of breastfeeding during this time period. These guidelines are for healthy, term infants. Common problems that often lead to untimely weaning are addressed. Referral to a skilled lactation professional, such as an International Board Certified Lactation Consultant (IBCLC), physician, midwife, nurse, or dietitian is always appropriate.
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Kangaroo Mother Care – A Practical Guide

Department of Reproductive Health and Research World Health Organization, Geneva 2003

Some 20 million low-birth-weight (LBW) babies are born each year, because of either preterm birth or impaired prenatal growth, mostly in less developed countries. They contribute substantially to a high rate of neonatal mortality whose frequency and distribution correspond to those of poverty. LBW and preterm birth are thus associated with high neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity. Of the estimated 4 million neonatal deaths, preterm and LBW babies represent more than a fifth. Therefore, the care of such infants becomes a burden for health and social systems everywhere.

For many small preterm infants, receiving prolonged medical care is important.
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A szoptatás védelme, támogatása és elősegítése Európában: Indítvány

Részlet a magyar nyelvű dokumentum bevezetőjéből:

A szoptatás védelme, támogatása és elősegítése igen fontos a közegészségügy számára, hiszen:

  • A szoptatás a csecsemő- és kisgyermektáplálás természetes módja. Ha az anya kizárólagosan szoptatja gyermekét az élet első hat hónapjában, ezzel biztosítja a gyermek optimális növekedését, fejlődését és egészségét. Az ezt követő szoptatás – a megfelelő kiegészítő élelmiszerek mellett – továbbra is igen értékes a csecsemő vagy kisgyermek élelmezése, fejlődése és egészsége szempontjából.
  • A szoptatás azonban nem kap elég támogatást és segítséget. Sok egészségügyi és szociális intézmény olyan szolgáltatást nyújt, amely inkább akadálya a szoptatás megkezdésének és folytatásának. Ennek eredményeképpen Európa számos gyermeke nem tudja ilyen ideálisan kezdeni életét.

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Protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding in Europe: a blueprint for action

“A szoptatás elősegítése Európában” címmel

Részlet David Byrne, európai egészség-és fogyasztóvédelmi biztos előszavából:

“The promotion of breastfeeding is one of the most effective ways to improve the health of our children. It has also beneficial effects for mothers, families, the community, the health and social system, the environment, and the society in general.
There are numerous initiatives at local, regional, national and international level that promote breastfeeding.
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Feeding and nutrition of infants and young children : Guidelines for the WHO European Region, with emphasis on the former Soviet countries

Kim Fleischer Michaelsen, Lawrence Weaver, Francesco Branca and Aileen Robertson
WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 87
World Health Organization 2000, updated reprint 2003

The guidelines are designed for the WHO European Region, with emphasis on the countries that resulted from the dissolution of the former Soviet Union. Nutrition and feeding practices vary throughout the Region and these recommendations should be applied flexibly and be adapted to local and national needs and circumstances. Despite the wide range of socioeconomic conditions found between and within the Member States of the Region, it is believed that many recommendations can be applied universally. They are especially applicable to the most vulnerable groups of infants and young children living in deprived conditions.
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Complementary Feeding

  • Report of the global consultation convened jointly by the Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development and the Department of Nutrition for Health and Development Geneva, 10-13 December 2001
  • and

  • Summary of guiding principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed child

A teljes dokumentum a WHO oldalán található.
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Initial Management of Breastfeeding

Keith Sinusas, M.D. and Amy Gagliardi, M.A., I.B.C.L.C.

Am Fam Physician 2001;64:981-8,991-2.

Breast milk is widely accepted as the ideal source of nutrition for infants. In order to ensure success in breastfeeding, it is important that it be initiated as early as possible during the neonatal period. This is facilitated by skin-to-skin contact between the mother and infant immediately following birth. When possible, the infant should be allowed to root and latch on spontaneously within the first hour of life. Many common nursery routines such as weighing the infant, administration of vitamin K and application of ocular antibiotics can be safely delayed until after the initial breastfeeding.
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