Bejegyzés

Breastfeeding and Dental Caries: Looking at the Evidence

Valerie Lavigne
Clinical Lactation, 2013, Vol. 4-1, 12-16.

Abstract

Dental caries and prolonged breastfeeding still trigger much debate among professionals and parents. Some mothers are still being told to discontinue breastfeeding their toddlers because of cavities in the mouth. Parents often feel very discouraged and upset when they are forced to stop breastfeeding their toddlers. Dental caries is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, and is a disease of multifactorial etiology. This paper reviews the literature on dental caries and breastfeeding. This review revealed that there was no conclusive evidence that prolonged breastfeeding increased the risk of early childhood cavities.
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Cortisol regulation in 12-month-old human infants: associations with the infants’ early history of breastfeeding and co-sleeping

Beijers R, Riksen-Walraven JM, de Weerth C.
Stress. 2012 Nov 1.

Abstract

Experiences during early life are suggested to affect the physiological systems underlying stress responses, including the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis). While stressful early experiences have been associated with dysregulated HPA-axis functioning, positive early experiences, i.e. high maternal caregiving quality, contribute to more optimal HPA-axis functioning. Influences of other early caregiving factors, however, are less well documented. The goal of this study was to examine whether breastfeeding and co-sleeping during the first six months of life was associated with infant cortisol regulation, i.e. cortisol reactivity and recovery, to a stressor at 12 months of age.
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A 6-24 hónapos és idősebb csecsemők és kisgyermekek folytatólagos szoptatásának védelme, elősegítése és támogatása: kérdések, irányelvek, stratégiák, intézkedések

EGYÜTTES NYILATKOZAT a WABA (World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action – Szoptatási Világszövetség) Globális Szoptatási Partnereinek 2008. októberében Penangban megtartott VII. Találkozóján létrejött műhelymunka alapján

A nyilatkozattétel indoklása

A nemzetközileg elfogadott csecsemő- és kisgyermek-táplálási ajánlások hat hónapos korig kizárólagos szoptatást javasolnak, majd a szoptatás folytatását megfelelő kiegészítő táplálás mellett két éves korig vagy tovább. Az a táplálási gyakorlat, amely nincs összhangban ezzel az ajánlással (az optimálistól elmaradó szoptatás)1, felelőssé tehető az 5 éven aluli gyermekek haláleseteinek 12%-áért.2 Ezen meg­előzhető halálesetek majdnem negyede (23%-a) visszavezethető a 6-24+ hónapos korúak szoptatásá­nak hiányára.2

A szoptatási gyakorlat javítása komoly segítő tényező lehet a Millennium Fejlesztési Célok elérésében.
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Relationship Between Bed Sharing and Breastfeeding: Longitudinal, Population-Based Analysis.

Blair PS, Heron J, Fleming PJ.
Pediatrics. 2010 Oct 18. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Objectives: This is an investigation into the longitudinal patterns of bed sharing, the characteristics associated with those patterns, and the relationship with breastfeeding.

Methods: The study used prospective, population-based data from the United Kingdom to investigate nocturnal bed sharing at 5 time points from birth to 4 years of age. Of 14 062 live births, 7447 (53%) had data available for all time points.

Results: Latent class analysis identified 4 mutually exclusive groups, broadly described as nonsharers (66%), early bed sharers (only in infancy) (13%), late bed sharers (after the first year) (15%), and constant bed sharers (throughout the 4 years) (6%).
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Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Continued Breastfeeding from 6 – 24 + Months: Issues, Politics, Policies and Action

Joint statement based on a workshop of the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) Global Breastfeeding Partners Meeting (GBPM) VII in Penang, Malaysia, October 2008.
The Joint Statement on Continued Breastfeeding was produced following the WABA GBPM in October 2008 in response to shared concerns that breastfeeding after 6 months has slipped off the policy and programme agenda. Action and investment in improving complementary feeding or providing foods supplements seems to be taking place with little consideration for supporting or improving breastfeeding amongst 6 – 24+ month old children, despite estimates that 20% of deaths in 12 < 24 month age group in developing countries are due to lack of breastfeeding.
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Fat and Energy Contents of Expressed Human Breast Milk in Prolonged Lactation

Dror Mandel, MD, MHA, Ronit Lubetzky, MD, Shaul Dollberg, MD, FACN, Shimon Barak, MD and Francis B. Mimouni, MD, FAAP, FACN

PEDIATRICS Vol. 116 No. 3 September 2005, pp. e432-e435

ABSTRACT

Objective. To estimate fat and energy contents of human milk during prolonged lactation.

Methods. Thirty-four mothers, of term, healthy, growing children, who had been lactating for >1 year (12–39 months) were recruited. Control subjects were 27 mothers, of term infants, who had been lactating for 2 to 6 months. Fat contents of the milk samples were estimated as creamatocrit (CMT) levels. Energy contents of the milk were measured with a bomb calorimeter.
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Feeding and nutrition of infants and young children : Guidelines for the WHO European Region, with emphasis on the former Soviet countries

Kim Fleischer Michaelsen, Lawrence Weaver, Francesco Branca and Aileen Robertson
WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 87
World Health Organization 2000, updated reprint 2003

The guidelines are designed for the WHO European Region, with emphasis on the countries that resulted from the dissolution of the former Soviet Union. Nutrition and feeding practices vary throughout the Region and these recommendations should be applied flexibly and be adapted to local and national needs and circumstances. Despite the wide range of socioeconomic conditions found between and within the Member States of the Region, it is believed that many recommendations can be applied universally. They are especially applicable to the most vulnerable groups of infants and young children living in deprived conditions.
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Investigation of the role of human breast milk in caries development.

Erickson PR, Mazhari E.
Pediatr Dent. 1999 Mar-Apr;21(2):86-90.

Abstract

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the caries-related risk associated with human breast milk (HBM).

METHODS: First, the plaque pH of 18 children (12-24 months) was monitored before and after a five-minute feeding with HBM to determine the pH drop and minimum pH obtained. Second, Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 was cultured for 3 hr in HBM, and the increase in the number of colony forming units (cfus) and the culture pH was measured. Third, HBM was incubated for 24 hr with powdered enamel to determine the solubility of mineral in the absence of bacteria.
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