Tag Archive for: Mesterséges táplálás

Milk sharing and formula feeding: Infant feeding risks in comparative perspective?

Gribble KD, Hausman BL.
Australasian Medical Journal, Vol 5, No 5 (2012)


The advent of Internet forums that facilitate peer-to-peer human milk sharing has resulted in health authorities stating that sharing human milk is dangerous. There are risks associated with all forms of infant feeding, including breastfeeding and the use of manufactured infant formulas.

However, health authorities do not warn against using formula or breastfeeding; they provide guidance on how to manage risk. Cultural distaste for sharing human milk, not evidenced-based research, supports these official warnings. Regulating bodies should conduct research and disseminate information about how to mitigate possible risks of sharing human milk, rather than proscribe the practice outright.
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Infant milks in the UK

Bár ez a dokumentum az Egyesült Királyságban forgalmazott csecsemőtápszerekről szól, a benne lévő sok általános információ és javaslat minden további nélkül alkalmazható a Magyarországon forgalmazott tápszerekre is. A dokumentum igen nagy jelentőségű amiatt is, hogy ez az első ilyen mélységű és terjedelmű, kereskedelmi érdekektől független, objektív összefoglaló a csecsemőtápszerekről.

Helen Crawley and Susan Westland
The Caroline Walker Trust 2011

Executive summary and recommendations

This report provides information about infant milks available in the UK. The stimulus to produce this report was the lack of any clear, objective and comprehensive information for health professionals about the composition of infant milks and how they are monitored and regulated.
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There is (still) too much aluminium in infant formulas

Shelle-Ann M Burrell and Christopher Exley
BMC Pediatrics 2010, 10:63


Infant formulas are sophisticated milk-based feeds for infants which are used as a substitute for breast milk. Historically they are known to be contaminated by aluminium and in the past this has raised health concerns for exposed infants. We have measured the aluminium content of a number of widely used infant formulas to determine if their contamination by aluminium and consequent issues of child health persist.

Samples of ready-made milks and powders used to make milks were prepared by microwave digestion of acid/peroxide mixtures and their aluminium content determined by THGA.
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What are the Risks Associated with Formula Feeding? A Re-Analysis and Review

McNiel ME, Labbok MH, Abrahams SW.
Birth. 2010 Mar;37(1):50-8.


BACKGROUND: Most infant feeding studies present infant formula use as “standard” practice, supporting perceptions of formula feeding as normative and hindering translation of current research into counseling messages supportive of exclusive breastfeeding. To promote optimal counseling, and to challenge researchers to use exclusive breastfeeding as the standard, we have reviewed the scientific literature on exclusive breastfeeding and converted reported odds ratios to allow discussion of the “risks” of any formula use.

METHODS: Studies indexed in PubMed that investigated the association between exclusive breastfeeding and otitis media, asthma, types 1 and 2 diabetes, atopic dermatitis, and infant hospitalization secondary to lower respiratory tract diseases were reviewed.
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Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein.

Bettler J, Zimmer JP, Neuringer M, DeRusso PA.
Eur J Nutr. 2010 Feb;49(1):45-51.


Background Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants.

Aim of the study To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein.

Methods A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infants (n = 26) randomized between 9 and 16 days of age to study formulas containing 20 (unfortified), 45, 120, and 225 mcg/l of lutein.
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Bottle feeding simulates child loss: Postpartum depression and evolutionary medicine

Gordon G. Gallup Jr., R. Nathan Pipitone, Kelly J. Carrone and Kevin L. Leadholm
Med Hypotheses. 2010 Jan;74(1):174-6.


At the level of a mother’s basic biology, the decision to bottle feed unwittingly mimics conditions associated with the death of an infant. Child loss is a well documented trigger for depression particularly in mothers, and growing evidence shows that bottle feeding is a risk factor for postpartum depression.

The implications of this hypothesis for infant feeding practices, hospital procedures that lead to intermittent separation between mothers and infants during the immediate postpartum period, parallels between an increased desire to hold infants by mothers who bottle feed and responses to infant death among nonhuman primates, and the relationship between weaning and depression are discussed in the context of an emerging discipline known as evolutionary medicine.
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Presence of Soil-Dwelling Clostridia in Commercial Powdered Infant Formulas

Barash JR, Hsia JK, Arnon SS.
J Pediatr. 2010 Mar;156(3):402-8.


Objective Because Clostridium botulinum was isolated from powdered infant formula (PIF) fed to an infant in the United Kingdom who subsequently developed infant botulism and from unopened PIF from the same manufacturer, we tested PIF manufactured in the United States for the presence of clostridial spores.

Study design Thirty PIF ingested by 19 California infants with botulism within 4 weeks of onset of illness (48% of all patients fed PIF during study) in 2006-2007 were cultured anaerobically to isolate clostridia. All isolated clostridia were identified to the species level and enumerated with standard microbiologic and molecular methods.
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The Risks of Not Breastfeeding for Mothers and Infants

Alison Stuebe, MD, MSc
Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Fall; 2(4): 222–231.


Health outcomes in developed countries differ substantially for mothers and infants who formula feed compared with those who breastfeed. For infants, not being breastfed is associated with an increased incidence of infectious morbidity, as well as elevated risks of childhood obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, leukemia, and sudden infant death syndrome.

For mothers, failure to breastfeed is associated with an increased incidence of premenopausal breast cancer, ovarian cancer, retained gestational weight gain, type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and the metabolic syndrome. Obstetricians are uniquely positioned to counsel mothers about the health impact of breastfeeding and to ensure that mothers and infants receive appropriate, evidence-based care, starting at birth.
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Perchlorate exposure from infant formula and comparisons with the perchlorate reference dose

Joshua G Schier, Amy F Wolkin, Lisa Valentin-Blasini, Martin G Belson, Stephanie M Kieszak, Carol S Rubin and Benjamin C Blount

Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication 18 March 2009; doi: 10.1038/jes.2009.18

Perchlorate exposure may be higher in infants compared with older persons, due to diet (infant formula) and body weight versus intake considerations. Our primary objective was to quantitatively assess perchlorate concentrations in commercially available powdered infant formulas (PIFs). Secondary objectives were: (1) to estimate exposure in infants under different dosing scenarios and compare them with the perchlorate reference dose (RfD); (2) estimate the perchlorate concentration in water used for preparing PIFs that would result in a dose exceeding the RfD; and (3) estimate iodine intakes from PIFs.
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‘Voldemort’ and health professional knowledge of breastfeeding – do journal titles and abstracts accurately convey findings on differential health outcomes for formula fed infants?

Julie P Smith, Mark D Dunstone and Megan E Elliott-Rudder

Australian Centre for Economic Research on Health Working Paper Number 4, December 2008


Effective promotion of breastfeeding is constrained if health professionals’ knowledge on its importance is deficient. This study asks if findings are easily accessed by health professionals; that is, whether formula feeding is ‘named’ as the risk factor in published research, or whether — like ‘Voldemort’ in Harry Potter —it is ‘He Who Shall Not Be Named’.

Our systematic analysis of information content of titles and abstracts of 78 studies which had reported poorer health among formula infants showed that their titles and abstracts avoid mentioning formula.
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