Tag Archive for: Oktatóanyagok

Human Milk and Lactation

Carol L Wagner, Eric M Graham, William W Hope
Medscape Emedicine, 2006 December

Breast milk is thought to be the best form of nutrition for neonates and infants. The properties of human milk facilitate the transition of life from in utero to ex utero. This dynamic fluid provides a diverse array of bioactive substances to the developing infant during critical periods of brain, immune, and gut development. The clinician must be familiar with how the mammary gland produces human milk and how its properties nourish and protect the breastfeeding infant.

This article reviews the development of the mammary gland (mammogenesis), the process through which the mammary gland develops the capacity to secrete milk (lactogenesis), the process of milk production (lactation), and the specific properties of human milk that make it unique and appropriate for human infants.
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Breastfeeding: The Essential Principles

Latha Chandran, Polina Gelfer
Pediatrics in Review. 2006;27:409-417


After completing this article, readers should be able to:

  1. Understand the physiology of lactation.
  2. Discuss the biologic specificity of human milk.
  3. Delineate the benefits of breastfeeding for the infant, the mother, and the community.
  4. Know relative and absolute contraindications to breastfeeding.
  5. Describe current recommendations for breastfeeding.


  • Physiology of Lactation
  • Composition of Human Milk
    • Colostrum
    • Mature Milk
  • Benefits of Breastfeeding
    • Child Health Benefits
    • Anti-infective Properties of Human Milk
    • Protection from Chronic Disease
    • Benefits for the Mother
  • Contraindications to Breastfeeding
    • Medical Disorders
    • Viruses
    • Medications
  • Conditions That Are Not Contraindications to Breastfeeding
  • Breastfeeding Considerations in Normal and Special Situations
    • American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Recommendations on Breastfeeding for Healthy Term Infants
    • Nursing While Pregnant
    • Breastfeeding Newborns Who Have Special Needs
  • Practical Issues in Breastfeeding
    • Guidelines for Collection and Storage of Expressed Human Milk
    • Banking Human Milk


Breastfeeding ensures the best possible physical health as well as developmental and psychosocial outcomes for infants.
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Counseling the Breastfeeding Mother

Carol L Wagner, Eric M Graham, William W Hope, Nikki Hughes
Medscape Emedicine, 2006 September

This article reviews the mechanics of breastfeeding, correct breastfeeding techniques, and sufficient versus insufficient milk supplies. A discussion of early follow-up of the breastfeeding mother-infant dyad and the warning signs of difficulties in that dyad are also included.

Emphasis is placed on assessing the breastfeeding neonate and determining when neonatal jaundice, more common in breastfed infants, is pathologic. Finally, common breastfeeding problems are discussed, with emphasis on their early recognition and management.

A cikk teljes szövege

Emedicine főoldal
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Infant Feeding in Emergencies

Manual for orientation, reading and reference

The agencies whose staff contributed to this draft material include WHO, UNICEF, LINKAGES, IBFAN, and ENN. – March, 2001


In emergencies, children under five are more likely to become ill and die from malnutrition and disease than anyone else. In general, the younger they are, the more vulnerable they are. Inappropriate feeding increases their risks.

This module covers how to feed infants, by breastfeeding and, when necessary, other options. It also addresses existing recommendations and protective policies, and gives guidance on how to provide adequate support for appropriate infant feeding.
Although we shall be talking about infants, that is babies under one year, breastfeeding can and should continue with other foods up to two years or beyond.
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