Tag Archive for: Összefoglalók

Breastfeeding Kinetics

A Problem-Solving Approach to Breastfeeding Difficulties

Verity Livingstone

Behavioral and Metabolic Aspects of Breastfeeding World Rev Nutr Diet. Basel, Karger, 1995, vol. 78. pp 28-54

Breatsfeeding has been recognized as the optimum way to nourish and nurture young children. It has proved to be the most cost-effective, health-promoting, and disease-preventing activity mothers can do because it is pivotal to infant growth, development, immunization and child spacing.

Over the last two decades, there has been an increase in the number of young mothers wishing to breastfeed, but despite teh widespread promotion of breastfeeding and the encouraging increase in its initiation rate, the number of mothers who exclusively breastfeed is < 30% in most industralized countries.
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Prenatal Lactation Assessment

Verity Livingstone

Journal SOGC 1994 November


Obstetricians and physicians play key roles in preparing pregnant women for breastfeeding. By performing a careful prenatal lactation assessment in the third trimester, maternal and infant risk factors for lactation and breastfeeding difficulties can be identified.

Anticipatory guidance and early intervention can help mothers to achive their breastfeeding goals and can help families to follow the recommended infant feeding guidelines. This article outlines a standardized prenatal assessment protocol that can be used by physicians in their offices.

A cikk teljes szövege letölthető a Vancouver Breastfeeding Centre oldaláról
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Protecting Breast-feeding – Family physicians’ role

Verity H. Livingstone

Can Fam Physician. 1992 August; 38: 1871-1876

Many mothers express a desire to breast-feed but are unable to initiate successful lactation, overcome minor difficulties, or maintain an adequate milk supply due to hospital routines and lack of appropriate advice from health care professionals.

“Doulas” were traditional female assistants who helped mothers breast-feed. Physicians must assume this role and promote breast-feeding prenatally, protect it in hospital, and support it postnatally.

A tejes cikk a PubMed Central oldaláról vagy a Vancouver Breastfeeding Centre oldaláról letölthető
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Breast Milk – A vital defense against infection

Janice M. Vickerstaffjoneja, PhD

Can Fam Physician 1992;38:1849-1855.

The protective agents in colostrum and mature breast milk include specific antibodies, enzymes, leukocytes and their products, antibinding factors, antiviral factors, promoters of a protective intestinal microflora, and immune stimulators. These agents persist through the length of the infant’s digestive tract, are unaffected by gastric acid and digestive enzymes, are present throughout lactation, and protect by noninflammatory mechanisms.

The incidence and severity of infections in breast-fed infants are significantly lower than bottle-fed infants. Although this was originally thought to be the result of increased exposure to contamination from bottle-feeding, recent research shows that specific agents in breast milk protect the exclusively breast-fed baby from infection even when pathogenic microorganisms have been ingested.
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A diagnostic approach to breastfeeding problems

Verity Livingstone

The Canadian Journal of Pediatrics February 1990

One-third of breastfeeding mothers stop within the first two months because they cannot solve their infant feeding difficulties, not because they wish to stop breastfeeding. This early weaning rate is unacceptably high, according to current infant feeding recommendations. The World Health Organization suggests that weaning should not occur until the second year, yet less than 10% of infants in Canada are receiving breast milk by one year.

Breastfeeding problems include: infant failure to thrive, early supplementation due to inadequate milk supply, infant distress, or maternal discomfort and distress. The etiology or underlying cause(s) should be carefully identified before appropriate management is instituted and preventive measures taken.
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The Family Physician’s Role in Preventing Early Termination of Breastfeeding

Verity Livingstone
Can Fam Physician 1986;32:2162-2169


Despite the high rate of breastfeeding among mothers as they leave the hospital, early termination of breastfeeding continues to be a problem. A new mother needs considerable education, support and, often, early intervention, not only to initiate breastfeeding successfully, but also to prevent breastfeeding problems occuring and to continue breastfeeding successfully for several months. Knowledgeable health-care providers are the key to promoting and protecting breastfeeding, yet in the community, many of these mothers, lacking the support of such knowledgeable advisers, often terminate early.

Family physicians are in a key position to help teh nursing dyad.
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