Bejegyzés

Breastfeeding has well-established short-term benefits, particularly the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases in childhood. A pooled analysis of studies carried out in middle/ low income countries showed that breastfeeding substantially lowers the risk of death from infectious diseases in the first two years of life.

Based on data from the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort, Quigley et al estimated that optimal breastfeeding practices could prevent a substantial proportion of hospital admissions due to diarrhea and lower respiratory tract infection. A systematic review by Kramer et al confirmed that exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months decreases morbidity from gastrointestinal and allergic diseases, without any negative effects on growth.
-> Olvasd el a teljes cikket. <-

Brion MJ, Lawlor DA, Matijasevich A, Horta B, Anselmi L, Araújo CL, Menezes AM, Victora CG, Smith GD.
Int J Epidemiol. 2011 Jun;40(3):670-80.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: A novel approach is explored for improving causal inference in observational studies by comparing cohorts from high-income with low- or middle-income countries (LMIC), where confounding structures differ. This is applied to assessing causal effects of breastfeeding on child blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI) and intelligence quotient (IQ).

METHODS: Standardized approaches for assessing the confounding structure of breastfeeding by socio-economic position were applied to the British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N ≃ 5000) and Brazilian Pelotas 1993 cohorts (N ≃ 1000).
-> Olvasd el a teljes cikket. <-

Isselmann Disantis K, Collins BN, Fisher JO, Davey A.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011 Aug 17;8(1):89

Abstract

Background: Behavioral mechanisms that contribute to the association between breastfeeding and reduced obesity risk are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that feeding human milk from the breast (direct breastfeeding) has a more optimal association with subsequent child appetite regulation behaviors and growth than bottle-feeding.

Methods: Children (n=109) aged 3- to 6- years were retrospectively classified as directly breastfed (fed exclusively at the breast), bottle-fed human milk, or bottle-fed formula in the first three months of life.
-> Olvasd el a teljes cikket. <-

Smith JP, Harvey PJ.
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jul 13:1-11.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the public health significance of premature weaning of infants from breast milk on later-life risk of chronic illness.

DESIGN: A review and summary of recent meta-analyses of studies linking premature weaning from breast milk with later-life chronic disease risk is presented followed by an estimation of the approximate exposure in a developed Western country, based on historical breast-feeding prevalence data for Australia since 1927. The population-attributable proportion of chronic disease associated with current patterns of artificial feeding in infancy is estimated.

RESULTS: After adjustment for major confounding variables, current research suggests that the risks of chronic disease are 30-200 % higher in those who were not breast-fed compared to those who were breast-fed in infancy.
-> Olvasd el a teljes cikket. <-

Li R, Fein SB, Grummer-Strawn LM.
Pediatrics. 2010 Jun;125(6):e1386-93.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: How breastfeeding reduces the risk of childhood obesity is unclear, and 1 hypothesis pertains to the ability of breastfed infants to self-regulate. We studied whether infants’ self-regulation of milk intake is affected by feeding mode (bottle versus breast) and the type of milk in the bottle (formula versus expressed breast milk).

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants in the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II received monthly questionnaires during their infant’s first year, and compete data were available for 1250 infants. We tested the impact of feeding mode and type of milk during early infancy on self-regulation during late infancy.
-> Olvasd el a teljes cikket. <-

Chivers P, Hands B, Parker H, Bulsara M, Beilin LJ, Kendall GE, Oddy WH.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Mar 30. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Objective: This study examined the influence of type and duration of infant feeding on adiposity rebound and the tracking of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years of age.

Methods: A sample of 1330 individuals over eight follows-ups was drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Trajectories of BMI from birth to adolescence using linear mixed model analysis investigated the influence of age at which breastfeeding was stopped and the age at which other milk was introduced (binomial 4-month cutoff point).
-> Olvasd el a teljes cikket. <-

Newburg DS, Woo JG, Morrow AL.
J Pediatr. 2010 Feb;156(2 Suppl):S41-6.

Abstract

Adiponectin is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue, whose circulating levels are inversely related to adiposity and inflammation. Adiponectin circulates as oligomers, from the low-molecular-weight trimer to the high-molecular-weight octodecamer (18 mer). Each oligomer has distinct biological activities, which include enhancement of insulin sensitivity and metabolic control and suppression of inflammation. Adiponectin occurs in human milk at higher concentrations than leptin.

The adiponectin in human milk is almost entirely of the high-molecular-weight form, the form with the highest activity in controlling many types of metabolic processes. Human adiponectin fed to infant mice is transported across the intestinal mucosa into the serum.
-> Olvasd el a teljes cikket. <-

Woo JG, Guerrero ML, Altaye M, Ruiz-Palacios GM, Martin LJ, Dubert-Ferrandon A, Newburg DS, Morrow AL.
Breastfeed Med. 2009 Jun;4(2):101-9.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Adiponectin, a circulating adipocyte protein, is associated with lower obesity. We have previously shown that adiponectin is present in human milk. This study determined whether higher milk adiponectin is associated with infant growth and investigated milk adiponectin’s oligomeric form.

DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a study of two parallel longitudinal cohorts of breastfed infants born between 1998 and 2005. Forty-five mother-infant pairs from Cincinnati, OH and 277 mother-infant pairs from Mexico City, Mexico were analyzed. All participants were healthy, term infants breastfed at least 1 month who completed 6 months of follow-up.
-> Olvasd el a teljes cikket. <-

Jennifer L Baker, Michael Gamborg, Berit L Heitmann, Lauren Lissner, Thorkild IA Sørensen and Kathleen M Rasmussen

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 88, No. 6, 1543-1551, December 2008

Abstract

Background: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age.

Objective: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding duration is long.

Design: We selected women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who ever breastfed (>98%), and we conducted the interviews at 6 (n = 36 030) and 18 (n = 26 846) mo postpartum.
-> Olvasd el a teljes cikket. <-

Kavitha T. Ram, Paul Bobby, Susan M. Hailpern, Joan C. Lo, Miriam Schocken, Joan Skurnick, Nanette Santoro

American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2008; 198:3 268.e1-e6

Abstract

Objective
The objective of the study was to evaluate whether lactation duration is associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in midlife, parous women.

Study Design
This was a cross-sectional cohort analysis of 2516 parous, midlife women using multivariable logistic regression to determine the independent association of lactation and lactation duration on prevalence of MetSyn.

Results
One thousand six hundred twenty women (64.4%) reported a history of breast-feeding, with average lifetime duration of lactation of 1.16 (± 1.04) years.
-> Olvasd el a teljes cikket. <-