Bejegyzés

Abrams SA1, Schanler RJ, Lee ML, Rechtman DJ.
Breastfeed Med. 2014 May 27.

Abstract

Background: Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit.

Subjects and Methods: EP infants <1,250 g birth weight received a diet consisting of either human milk fortified with a human milk protein-based fortifier (HM) (n=167) or a diet containing variable amounts of milk containing cow milk-based protein (CM) (n=93). Principal outcomes were mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), growth, and duration of parenteral nutrition (PN).
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A British Medical Journal-ben nemrég megjelent tanulmány az eddig elvégzett legnagyobb esetszámú, randomizált, kettső vak, placebo-kontrollált vizsgálat. Az eredmények szerint a Lactobacillus reuteri probiotikummal történő kezelés nem csökkentette jobban a kólikás csecsemők sírását és a nyűgösségét, mint a placebo.

A kutatást az ausztráliai Melbourne-ben végezték 167 szoptatott vagy mesterségesen táplált, 3 hónaposnál fiatalabb csecsemő bevonásával, akik megfeleltek a sírás vagy nyűgösség Wessel-féle kritériumainak (a csecsemő 3 hónaposnál fiatalabb, naponta legalább 3 órát „megmagyarázható ok nélkül” sír, egy héten legalább 3 napon, és ez több mint 3 hete tart). A csecsemőket a területi alap- vagy másodlagos ellátást nyújtó centrumokból válogatták, majd random módon két csoportba osztották: 85 csecsemő probiotikumot, 82 pedig placebót kapott egy hónapon át, naponta egyszer, szájon át.
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Ladomenou F, Moschandreas J, Kafatos A, Tselentis Y, Galanakis E.

Arch Dis Child. 2010 Sep 27. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Objective To prospectively investigate the effects of breastfeeding on the frequency and severity of infections in a well-defined infant population with adequate vaccination coverage and healthcare standards.

Study design In a representative sample of 926 infants, successfully followed up for 12 months, feeding mode and all infectious episodes, including acute otitis media (AOM), acute respiratory infection (ARI), gastroenteritis, urinary tract infection, conjunctivitis and thrush, were recorded at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of life.

Results Infants exclusively breastfed for 6 months, as per WHO recommendations, presented with fewer infectious episodes than their partially breastfed or non-breastfed peers and this protective effect persisted after adjustment for potential confounders for ARI (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.92), AOM (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.05) and thrush (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.02).
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Smith JP, Harvey PJ.
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jul 13:1-11.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the public health significance of premature weaning of infants from breast milk on later-life risk of chronic illness.

DESIGN: A review and summary of recent meta-analyses of studies linking premature weaning from breast milk with later-life chronic disease risk is presented followed by an estimation of the approximate exposure in a developed Western country, based on historical breast-feeding prevalence data for Australia since 1927. The population-attributable proportion of chronic disease associated with current patterns of artificial feeding in infancy is estimated.

RESULTS: After adjustment for major confounding variables, current research suggests that the risks of chronic disease are 30-200 % higher in those who were not breast-fed compared to those who were breast-fed in infancy.
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Duijts L, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, Moll HA.
Pediatrics. 2010 Jun 21. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Objective: To examine the associations of duration of exclusive breastfeeding with infections in the upper respiratory (URTI), lower respiratory (LRTI), and gastrointestinal tracts (GI) in infancy.

Methods: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onward in the Netherlands. Rates of breastfeeding during the first 6 months (never; partial for <4 months, not thereafter; partial for 4-6 months; exclusive for 4 months, not thereafter; exclusive for 4 months, partial thereafter; and exclusive for 6 months) and doctor-attended infections in the URTI, LRTI, and GI until the age of 12 months were assessed by questionnaires and available for 4164 subjects.
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Gearry RB, Richardson AK, Frampton CM, Dodgshun AJ, Barclay ML.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Jan 14. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Background and Aim: The rapid increase in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) incidence confirms the importance of environment in its etiology. We aimed to assess the role of childhood and other environmental risk factors in IBD.

Methods: A population-based case-control study was carried out in Canterbury, New Zealand. Participants comprised 638 prevalent Crohn’s disease (CD) cases, 653 prevalent ulcerative colitis (UC) cases and 600 randomly-selected sex and age matched controls. Exposure rates to environmental risk factors were compared. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) are presented.
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Sullivan S, Schanler RJ, Kim JH, Patel AL, Trawöger R, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, Chan GM, Blanco CL, Abrams S, Cotten CM, Laroia N, Ehrenkranz RA, Dudell G, Cristofalo EA, Meier P, Lee ML, Rechtman DJ, Lucas A.
J Pediatr. 2009 Dec 24. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Objective To evaluate the health benefits of an exclusively human milk–based diet compared with a diet of both human milk and bovine milk–based products in extremely premature infants.

Study design Infants fed their own mothers’ milk were randomized to 1 of 3 study groups. Groups HM100 and HM40 received pasteurized donor human milk–based human milk fortifier when the enteral intake was 100 and 40 mL/kg/d, respectively, and both groups received pasteurized donor human milk if no mother’s milk was available.
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Newburg, DS.; Walker, WA.
Pediatr Res 61: 2–8, 2007

Abstract

The neonatal adaptive immune system, relatively naïve to foreign antigens, requires synergy with the innate immune system to protect the intestine. Goblet cells provide mucins, Paneth cells produce antimicrobial peptides, and dendritic cells (DCs) present luminal antigens. Intracellular signaling by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) elicits chemokines and cytokines that modulate inflammation. Enteric neurons and lymphocytes provide paracrine and endocrine signaling. However, full protection requires human milk. Breast-feeding reduces enteric infection and may reduce chronic disease in later life. Although human milk contains significant secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), most of its protective factors are constitutively expressed.
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Liesbeth Duijts, Made K. Ramadhani and Henriëtte A. Moll
Maternal & Child Nutrition Volume 5 Issue 3, Pages 199 – 210; 2009

Abstract

Firstly, this review was performed to assess the effect of breastfeeding on infections during infancy in industrialized countries. Secondly, the effect of duration and exclusiveness of breastfeeding were explored.

Studies were identified using Medline, Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index and by a manual search from bibliographies of articles from August 1986 to January 2008. Follow-up, case–control and randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies performed in an industrialized country, published in English, with breastfeeding as a determinant, with overall infections, gastrointestinal or respiratory tract infections as a major outcome, and at least 40 participants in the study were included.
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Theresa A Mikhailov, Sylvia E Furner
World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Jan 21;15(3):270-9.

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic, debilitating disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease has not been elucidated, but is thought to be multifactorial with both environ-mental and genetic influences.

A large body of research has been conducted to elucidate the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease. This article reviews this literature, emphasizing the studies of breastfeeding and the studies of genetic factors, particularly NOD2 polymorphisms.

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World Journal of Gastroenterology főoldal
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