Tag Archive for: Szoptatás és szív-érrendszeri betegségek

Long-term effects of breastfeeding – A systematic review

Breastfeeding has well-established short-term benefits, particularly the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases in childhood. A pooled analysis of studies carried out in middle/ low income countries showed that breastfeeding substantially lowers the risk of death from infectious diseases in the first two years of life.

Based on data from the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort, Quigley et al estimated that optimal breastfeeding practices could prevent a substantial proportion of hospital admissions due to diarrhea and lower respiratory tract infection. A systematic review by Kramer et al confirmed that exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months decreases morbidity from gastrointestinal and allergic diseases, without any negative effects on growth.
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Chronic disease and infant nutrition: is it significant to public health?

Smith JP, Harvey PJ.
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jul 13:1-11.


OBJECTIVE: To assess the public health significance of premature weaning of infants from breast milk on later-life risk of chronic illness.

DESIGN: A review and summary of recent meta-analyses of studies linking premature weaning from breast milk with later-life chronic disease risk is presented followed by an estimation of the approximate exposure in a developed Western country, based on historical breast-feeding prevalence data for Australia since 1927. The population-attributable proportion of chronic disease associated with current patterns of artificial feeding in infancy is estimated.

RESULTS: After adjustment for major confounding variables, current research suggests that the risks of chronic disease are 30-200 % higher in those who were not breast-fed compared to those who were breast-fed in infancy.
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Lactation and Maternal Measures of Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease

Schwarz EB, McClure CK, Tepper PG, Thurston R, Janssen I, Matthews KA, Sutton-Tyrrell K.
Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Jan;115(1):41-8.


OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between lactation and subclinical cardiovascular disease in a population free of clinical cardiovascular disease.

METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 297 women who reported at least one live birth on enrollment in the Study of Women Across the Nation–Heart Study. Participants were mothers aged 45–58 years who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease. History of lactation was self-reported. Electron beam tomography was used to assess coronary and aortic calcification. B-mode ultrasonography was used to assess carotid adventitial diameter, intima–media thickness, and carotid plaque.
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Duration of Lactation and Incidence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Women of Reproductive Age According to Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Status: A 20-Year Prospective Study in CARDIA—The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study

Gunderson EP, Jacobs DR Jr, Chiang V, Lewis CE, Feng J, Quesenberry CP Jr, Sidney S.

Diabetes. 2009 Dec 3.


Objective(s): To prospectively assess the association between lactation duration and incidence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among women of reproductive age.

Research Design and Methods: Participants were 1,399 women (39% black, aged 18–30) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, an ongoing multi-center, population-based, prospective observational cohort study conducted in the United States. Women were nulliparous and free of the MetS at baseline (1985–86) and before subsequent pregnancies, and re-examined 7, 10, 15 and/or 20 years after baseline.
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Duration of Lactation and Risk Factors for Maternal Cardiovascular Disease

Schwarz EB, Ray RM, Stuebe AM, Allison MA, Ness RB, Freiberg MS, Cauley JA.
Obstet Gynecol. 2009 May;113(5):974-982.


OBJECTIVE: To examine dose-response relationships between the cumulative number of months women lactated and postmenopausal risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

METHODS: We examined data from 139,681 postmenopausal women (median age 63 years) who reported at least one live birth on enrolling in the Women’s Health Initiative observational study or controlled trials. Multivariable models were used to control for sociodemographic (age, parity, race, education, income, age at menopause), lifestyle, and family history variables when examining the effect of duration of lactation on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including obesity (body mass index [BMI] at or above 30), hypertension, self-reported diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease.
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Duration of lactation and incidence of myocardial infarction in middle to late adulthood

Stuebe AM, Michels KB, Willett WC, Manson JE, Rexrode K, Rich-Edwards JW.

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Feb;200(2):138.e1-8.

We assessed the relation between duration of lactation and maternal incident myocardial infarction.

Study Design
This was a prospective cohort study of 89,326 parous women in the Nurses’ Health Study.

Compared with parous women who had never breastfed, women who had breastfed for a lifetime total of 2 years or longer had 37% lower risk of coronary heart disease (95% confidence interval, 23-49%; P for trend < .001), adjusting for age, parity, and stillbirth history. With additional adjustment for early-adult adiposity, parental history, and lifestyle factors, women who had breastfed for a lifetime total of 2 years or longer had a 23% lower risk of coronary heart disease (95% confidence interval, 6-38%; P for trend = .02) than women who had never breastfed. A cikk teljes szövege

American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology főoldal
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Does initial breastfeeding lead to lower blood cholesterol in adult life? A quantitative review of the evidence

Christopher G Owen, Peter H Whincup, Samantha J Kaye, Richard M Martin, George Davey Smith, Derek G Cook, Erik Bergstrom, Stephanie Black, Michael EJ Wadsworth, Caroline H Fall, Jo L Freudenheim, Jing Nie, Rachel R Huxley, Sanja Kolacek, C Paul Leeson, Mark S Pearce, Olli T Raitakari, Irina Lisinen, Jorma S Viikari, Anita C Ravelli, Alicja R Rudnicka, David P Strachan and Sheila M Williams

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 88, No. 2, 305-314, August 2008


Background: Earlier studies have suggested that infant feeding may program long-term changes in cholesterol metabolism.

Objective: We aimed to examine whether breastfeeding is associated with lower blood cholesterol concentrations in adulthood.
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Duration of lactation is associated with lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in midlife

Kavitha T. Ram, Paul Bobby, Susan M. Hailpern, Joan C. Lo, Miriam Schocken, Joan Skurnick, Nanette Santoro

American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2008; 198:3 268.e1-e6


The objective of the study was to evaluate whether lactation duration is associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in midlife, parous women.

Study Design
This was a cross-sectional cohort analysis of 2516 parous, midlife women using multivariable logistic regression to determine the independent association of lactation and lactation duration on prevalence of MetSyn.

One thousand six hundred twenty women (64.4%) reported a history of breast-feeding, with average lifetime duration of lactation of 1.16 (± 1.04) years.
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Outcomes of Breastfeeding versus Formula Feeding

A csecsemőtáplálás módjának a csecsemő és az anya egészségére gyakorlt hatásával kapcsolatos kutatási eredmények jól áttekinthető összefoglalása.

Letölthető a La leche League International oldaláról.
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Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding: systematic review and meta-analyses

Bernardo L. Horta, Rajiv Bahl, José C. Martines, Cesar G. Victora
World Health Organization 2007

Executive summary

Background: Breastfeeding presents clear short-term benefits for child health, mainly protection against morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. On the other hand, there is some controversy on the long-term consequences of breastfeeding. Whereas some studies reported that breastfed subjects present a higher level of school achievement and performance in intelligence
tests, as well as lower blood pressure, lower total cholesterol and a lower prevalence of overweight
and obesity, others have failed to detect such associations.

Objectives: The primary objective of this series of systematic reviews was to assess the effects of breastfeeding on blood pressure, diabetes and related indicators, serum cholesterol, overweight and obesity, and intellectual performance.
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