Bejegyzés

Cytomegalovirus transmission to preterm infants during lactation

Hamprecht K, Maschmann J, Jahn G, Poets CF, Goelz R.

J Clin Virol. 2008 Mar;41(3):198-205.

Abstract

Breastfeeding has a major impact on HCMV epidemiology. The incidence of postnatal HCMV reactivation during lactation equals the maternal seroprevalence. Infectious virus, viral DNA and RNA can be isolated easily from cell and fat-free milk whey. Early onset of viral DNAlactia and virolactia as well as high viral load in milk whey are maternal risk factors for virus transmission.

The dynamics of HCMV reactivation can be described by unimodal kinetics with interindividual variation. Virus reactivation during lactation is a self-limiting local process in the absence of systemic HCMV infection.
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Lactation Complicated by Overweight and Obesity: Supporting the Mother and Newborn

Cecilia Jevitt, Ivonne Hernandez, Maureen Groër
J Midwifery Womens Health. 2007;52(6):606-613.

Abstract

Research shows that mothers who are obese (with a BMI >30) are less likely to initiate lactation, have delayed lactogenesis II, and are prone to early cessation of breastfeeding. Black women, with the highest rates of American obesity, have the lowest rates and shortest duration of breastfeeding compared to Hispanic and white women. Women who are overweight and obese have lowered prolactin responses to suckling. Women who are obese are at risk for prolonged labors, excessive labor stress, and cesarean birth, all of which delay lactogenesis II.

Lactation has a small but significant role in preventing future obesity in the mother and child.
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A systematic review of maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration

Lisa H Amir and Susan Donath

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2007, 7:9

Abstract (provisional)

Background

Breastfeeding behaviour is multifactorial, and a wide range of socio-cultural and physiological variables impact on a woman’s decision and ability to breastfeed successfully. An association has been reported between maternal obesity and low breastfeeding rates. This is of public health concern because obesity is rising in women of reproductive age and the apparent association with increased artificial feeding will lead to a greater risk of obesity in children. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between maternal overweight and obesity and breastfeeding intention and initiation and duration.
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A new paradigm for depression in new mothers: the central role of inflammation and how breastfeeding and anti-inflammatory treatments protect maternal mental health

Kendall-Tackett K.
Int Breastfeed J. 2007 Mar 30;2:6.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Research in the field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) has revealed that depression is associated with inflammation manifested by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines.

DISCUSSION: The old paradigm described inflammation as simply one of many risk factors for depression. The new paradigm is based on more recent research that has indicated that physical and psychological stressors increase inflammation. These recent studies constitute an important shift in the depression paradigm: inflammation is not simply a risk factor; it is the risk factor that underlies all the others. Moreover, inflammation explains why psychosocial, behavioral and physical risk factors increase the risk of depression.
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Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Infection Related to Breast Milk

Paul A. Byrne, Carol Miller, Kathy Justus
Breastfeeding Medicine. 2006, 1(4): 263-270.

Abstract

Group B streptococcus is currently the most common cause of sepsis and meningitis in newborns. How should mothers whose breast milk cultures show growth of this microorganism be managed regarding breastfeeding? This case study discusses the possible transfer of group B streptococcus to a preterm infant from mother’s milk. It also describes the process that was taken to preserve the breastfeeding experience while the infant was treated. The questions provoked during this investigation prompted the authors to revise procedures in their special care nursery for dealing with infants and mothers presenting with signs of infection.
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ILCA: Position Paper on HIV and Infant Feeding

The value of human milk

  • Exclusive breastfeeding for six months followed by continued breastfeeding with complementary foods and fluids for up to age two years and beyond (the World Health Organization standard) is the normal, optimal way of feeding infants and the foundation of health and development, except in rare circumstances.
  • Artificial feeding (use of substitutes for human milk)increases infants’ risks of acute illness, chronic disease,and slower cognitive development, and increases mothers’ risks of cancer.
  • It is estimated that yearly, at least one million infants die due to lack of optimal breastfeeding. A three-country World Health Organization analysis of infant mortality data showed a six-fold greater risk of death from infectious disease for infants who were not breastfed in the first two months of life (3).

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Fatty acid composition of human milk in atopic Danish mothers

Lotte Lauritzen, Liselotte Brydensholt Halkjær, Tina B Mikkelsen, Sjurdur F Olsen, Kim F Michaelsen, Lotte Loland and Hans Bisgaard

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 84, No. 1, 190-196, July 2006

Background: Atopic dermatitis has been related to a disturbed metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).

Objective: We tested whether the PUFA composition of breast milk differs significantly between mothers with atopic dermatitis, mothers with other types of atopy, and nonatopic mothers. We also investigated whether differences in diet can explain possible observed differences.

Design: Mothers with current or previous asthma (n = 396) were divided into 3 groups according to history of atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis.
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Cytomegalovirus in Human Breast Milk: Risk to the Premature Infant

Robert M. Lawrence
Breastfeeding Medicine. 2006, 1(2): 99-107.

Abstract

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can be transmitted through breast milk to neonates. Although healthy full-term infants rarely develop symptoms of CMV infection; premature or low-birth-weight infants can experience symptomatic infection that is occasionally severe. There is limited information on the long-term effects of postnatal CMV infection in premature infants, suggesting that these infants do not develop cognitive function delays or hearing loss, although those with intrapartum infection do. Readily available methods of treating breast milk to inactivate the CMV either diminish the immunologic and nutritive benefits of breast milk or incompletely inactivate the virus.
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Breastfeeding a Baby with Mother on Bromocripine

Verma S, Shah D, Faridi MM.
Indian J Pediatr. 2006 May;73(5):435-6.

Abstract

Prolactinomas, the most common pituitary adenomas, are important causes of infertility. Bromocriptine remains the treatment of choice for managing hyperprolactinemia in most of these cases. Breastfeeding in mothers receiving bromocriptine is often doubtful and matter of concern for most people.

Here we report a case, where by timely intervention and skilled counseling, exclusive breastfeeding could be established in a mother receiving bromocriptine for the treatment of hyperprolactinemia.

A cikk teljes szövege a The Indian Journal of Pediatrics oldaláról letölthető.

The Indian Journal of Pediatrics főoldal
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Long-Term Breast-Feeding in Women With Type 1 Diabetes

Edna Stage, RN, Hanne Nørgård, RN, Peter Damm, MD, DMSC and Elisabeth Mathiesen, MD, DMSC

Diabetes Care 29:771-774, 2006

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE—Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—One hundred two consecutive women with type 1 diabetes were interviewed about breast-feeding using a semistructured questionnaire 5 days and 4 months after delivery. Clinical data were collected from the medical records.

RESULTS—Five days after delivery, 86% of the women were breast-feeding.
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